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Block II

Lower extremity muscle origin, insertion, action, innervation, vasculature

QuestionAnswer
Gluteus Maximus Origin Post. Surface of Ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line, Dorsal sacrum, and Sacrotuberous ligament
Gluteus Maximus Insertion Iliotibial tract and gluteal tuberosity
Gluteus Maximus Action Extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
Gluteus Maximus Innervation Inferior gluteal nerve
Gluteus Medius Origin Post. Surface of ilium between posterior and anterior gluteal lines
Gluteus Medius Insertion Superior and lateral surface of greater trochanter
Gluteus Medius Action Abducts thigh, rotates thigh medially
Gluteus Medius innervation Superior gluteal nerve
Superior Gemellus Origin Ischial Spine and sacrospinous ligament
Superior Gemellus insertion Tendon of obturator internus
Superior Gemellus Action Rotates thigh laterally, abducts flexed thigh
Superior Gemellus Innervation Nerve to obturator internus
Inferior Gemellus origin Ischial tuberosity
Inferior Gemellus insertion Tendon of obturator internus
Inferior Gemellus action Rotates thigh laterally, abducts flexed thigh
Inferior Gemellus innervation Nerve to quadratus femoris
Quadratus Femoris origin Ischial tuberosity
Quadratus Femoris insertion Intertrochanteric crest and inferior to crest
Quadratus Femoris action Rotates thigh laterally
Quadratus Femoris innervation Nerve to quadratus femoris
Gluteus Minimus origin Posterior surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines
Gluteus Minimus insertion Anterior surface of greater trochanter
Gluteus Minimus action Abducts thigh, medially rotates
Gluteus Minimus innervation Superior gluteal nerve
Piriformis origin Pelvic surface of sacrum and sacrotuberous ligament
Piriformis insertion Medial and Superior surface of greater trochanter
Piriformis action Rotates thigh laterally, abducts flexed thigh
Piriformis innervation Branches of S1-2
Piriformis passes through Greater sciatic foramen
Tendon of obturator internus passes through Lesser sciatic foramen
Obturator Internus origin Obturator membrane, pelvic surface and portions of pubis, ischium
Obturator Internus insertion Trochanteric fossa
Obturator Internus action Rotates thigh laterally, abducts flexed thigh
Obturator Internus innervation Nerve to obturator internus
Biceps Femoris origin Long head: ischial tuberosity. Short Head: Lower portion of linea aspera on femur
Biceps Femoris insertion Fibular head lateral side
Biceps Femoris action Long head: extend thigh, flex leg. Short head: flex leg. Long/Short together: Laterally rotate leg when flexed
Biceps Femoris Innervation Long head: Sciatic nerve tibial portion. Short head: Sciatic nerve fibular portion
Semitendinosus origin Ischial tuberosity
Semitendinosus insertion Medial side of tibia inferior to medial condyle
Semitendinosus action Flexes leg, extends thigh, medially rotates flexed leg
Semitendinosus innervation Sciatic nerve tibial portion
Semimembranosus origin Ischial tuberosity
Semimembranosus insertion Medial side of tibia inferior to medial condyle
Semimembranosus action Flexes leg, extends thigh, medially rotates flexed leg
Semimembranosus innervation Sciatic nerve tibial portion
Ligaments of lesser and greater sciatic foramen Sacrotuberous and Sacrospinous ligaments
Sciatic nerve passes through Greater sciatic foramen
Nerve injured in Trendelenburg gait Superior gluteal nerve
Trendelenberg sign Hip drops side opposite injured nerve while walking
Superior gluteal artery arises from Internal iliac artery
Inferior gluteal artery arises from Internal iliac artery
Posterior thigh muscles innervation Sciatic nerve tibial portion except short head of biceps femoris (fibular portion)
Cutaneuos innervation of gluteal region Cluneal nerve
Cutaneous innervation of posterior thigh Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
Iliopsoas origin Psoas Major: T12-L5 vertebral bodies, intervertebral disks, lumbar transverse processes. Iliacus: Iliac fossa.
Iliopsoas insertion Lesser trochanter of femur
Iliopsoas action Flexes thigh
Iliopsoas innervation Psoas M.: L2-4 ventral rami. Iliacus: Femoral N.
Rectus Femoris origin Ant. Inferior iliac spine, ilium superior to acetabulum
Rectus Femoris insertion Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Rectus Femoris action Extends leg, weak flexor of thigh
Rectus Femoris innervation Femoral N.
Vastus Lateralis origin Inferior greater trochanter, lateral lip of linea aspera
Vastus Lateralis insertion Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Vastus Lateralis action Extends leg
Vastus Lateralis innervation Femoral N.
Vastus intermedius origin Anterior and latera upper 1/2 of femur,
Vastus intermedius insertion Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Vastus intermedius action Extends leg
Vastus intermedius innervation Femoral N.
Vastus medialis origin Intertrochanteric line, medial lip of linea aspera
Vastus medialis insertion Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Vastus medialis action Extends leg
Vastus medialis innervation Femoral N.
Gracilis origin Pubis; body and inferior ramus
Gracilis insertion Medial surface of tibia below medial condyle
Gracilis action Adducts, medially rotates thigh, weak flexor of thigh
Gracilis innervation Obturator N.
Adductor Magnus adductor part origin Inferior pubic ramus, ischial ramus
Adductor Magnus adductor part insertion Below insertion of quadratus femoris, length of linea aspera
Adductor Magnus adductor part action Adducts thigh (weak flexor of thigh)
Adductor Magnus adductor part innervation Obturator N.
Adductor Magnus hamstring part origin Ischial tuberosity
Adductor Magnus hamstring part insertion Adductor tubercle (upper border of medial epicondyle)
Adductor Magnus hamstring part action Adducts, extends thigh,
Adductor Magnus hamstring part innervation Sciatic N.
Adductor Longus origin Pubic crest and body
Adductor Longus insertion Middle 1/3 linea aspera
Adductor Longus action Adducts thigh (weak flexor of thigh)
Adductor Longus innervation Obturator N.
Pectineus origin Sup. ramus of pubis
Pectineus insertion Pectineal line of femur
Pectineus action Flexes, adducts, medially rotates thigh
Pectineus innervation Femoral N. (typical) or obturator n.
Adductor brevis origin Inferior ramus and body of pubis
Adductor brevis insertion Upper 1/3 linea aspera
Adductor brevis action Adducts thigh (weak flexor of thigh)
Adductor brevis innervation Obturator N.
Obturator Externus origin External surface of obturator membrane and surrounding bone
Obturator Externus insertion Trochanteric fossa
Obturator Externus action Laterally rotates thigh
Obturator Externus innervation Obturator N.
Deep fascia of the thigh Fascia lata
Lateral reinforced tendon fibers of fascia lata Iliotibial tract (IT band)
Quadriceps muscles Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis
Hamstring muscles Biceps femoris, semitendonosus, semimembranosus
Quadriceps tendon continuous with what Patellar ligament
Sartorious origin Ant. superior iliac spine
Sartorious insertion Sup. body of tibia medial side
Sartorious action Flex, abduct, laterally rotate thigh and flex leg
Sartorious innervation Femoral N.
Tensor fasciae latae origin Ant. superior iliac spine
Tensor fasciae latae insertion IT band
Tensor fasciae latae action Flex thigh, stabilize extension at knee (IT band)
Tensor fasciae latae innervation Superior gluteal N.
Adductor magnus adductor part hiatus allows passage of what Perforating branches of deep artery of thigh
External iliac artery changes name here Inguinal ligament (becomes femoral artery)
Femoral artery passes through this and changes names Adductor hiatus becoming popliteal artery
Anterior and medial thigh innervated by branches of this Lumbar plexus
Ant. thigh musculature innervation Femoral N. except Tensor Fasciae Latae and Psoas major
Medial thigh musculature innervation Obturator N. except hamstring part of adductor magnus
Contents of femoral sheath Femoral Artery, vein, and canal
Tibialis Anterior origin Upper 1/2 tibia to lat. condyle, interosseus membrane
Tibialis Anterior insertion Med. cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal bone on inferior surface
Tibialis Anterior action Dorsiflex, invert foot
Tibialis Anterior innervation Deep fibular N.
Extensor hallucis longus origin Ant. surface of fibula, interosseous
Extensor hallucis longus insertion Base of distal phalanx of hallux
Extensor hallucis longus action Extend big toe, assist dorsiflexion
Extensor hallucis longus innervation Deep fibular N.
Extensor digitorum longus origin Lat. condyle of tibia inferiorly to fibula
Extensor digitorum longus insertion Dorsal surface of middle and distal phalange
Extensor digitorum longus action Extend toes 2-5, Assist dorsiflexion
Extensor digitorum longus innervation Deep fibular N.
Fibularis tertius origin Ant. surface fibula, interosseus
Fibularis tertius insertion Base of 5th metatarsal, dorsal surface
Fibularis tertius action dorsiflex, Assist eversion
Fibularis tertius innervation Deep fibular N.
Innervation of Ant. leg compartment Deep fibular N.
Innervation of Lat. leg compartment Superficial fibular N.
Muscles of Ant. leg compartment Tibialis ant., Extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, Fibularis tertius
Muscles of Lat. leg compartment Fibularis longus, fibularis brevis
Fibularis longus origin head and lat. surface of fibula
Fibularis longus insertion Med. cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal
Fibularis longus action Evert foot, weak plantar flexion
Fibularis longus innervation Superficial fibular N.
Fibularis brevis origin Lat. surface of fibula, inf. to longus
Fibularis brevis insertion Tuberosity of 5th metatarsal
Fibularis brevis action Evert foot, weak plantar flexion
Fibularis brevis innervation Superficial fibular N.
Post. leg compartment innervation Tibial N.
Muscles of superficial post. leg compartment Gastrocnemius, Plantaris, soleus
Gastrocnemius origin Lat. head: Lat. condyle of femur, Med. head: Medial condyle femur
Gastrocnemius insertion Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Gastrocnemius action Plantar flex foot, flex unweighted leg
Gastrocnemius innervation Tibial N.
Plantaris origin Sup. to gastroc. lat. head above lat. condyle of femur
Plantaris insertion Adjacent to calcaneal tendon on calcaneus
Plantaris action Assist lat. head of gastroc.
Plantaris innervation Tibial N.
Soleus origin Fibula and soleal line of tibia
Soleus insertion Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Soleus action Plantar flex foot
Soleus innervation Tibial N.
Muscles of deep post. leg compartment Tibialis Post., popliteus, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus
Tibialis posterior origin Tibia, fibula, interosseus membrane
Tibialis posterior insertion Tuberosity of navicular bone, cuneiform bones, cuboid bone, bases of metatarsals 2-4
Tibialis posterior action Inverts, plantar flexes foot
Tibialis posterior innervation Tibial N.
Popliteus origin Lat. condyle of femur, lat. meniscus
Popliteus insertion Tibia, above soleus attachment
Popliteus action Med. rotates unweighted leg, lat. rotates femur when standing (unlocks knee)
Popliteus innervation Tibial N.
Flexor hallucis longus origin Fibula
Flexor hallucis longus insertion Base of distal phalanx of hallux
Flexor hallucis longus action Flex hallux
Flexor hallucis longus innervation Tibial N.
Flexor digitorum longus origin Tibia
Flexor digitorum longus insertion Base of distal phalanges of toes 2-5
Flexor digitorum longus action Flexes toes, weak plantar flexor
Flexor digitorum longus innervation Tibial N.
Extensor hallucis brevis origin Ant. surface of calcaneus
Extensor hallucis brevis insertion Base of proximal phalanx of hallux
Extensor hallucis brevis action Extend hallux
Extensor hallucis brevis innervation Deep fibular N.
Extensor digitorum brevis origin Ant. surface of calcaneus
Extensor digitorum brevis insertion Tendons blend with tendons of extensor digitorum longus
Extensor digitorum brevis action Assists extension of toes 2-5
Extensor digitorum brevis innervation Deep fibular n.
Abductor hallucis origin medial side Calcaneal tuberosity
Abductor hallucis insetion Medial side of base of hallux proximal phalanx
Abductor hallucis action Abduct hallux, flex hallux at MP joint
Abductor hallucis innervation Medial Plantar N.
Flexor digitorum brevis origin Calcaneal tuberosity, plantar aponeurosis
Flexor digitorum brevis insertion Tendon splits, attaches to lat. and medial side of middle phalanges
Flexor digitorum brevis action Flexes toes 2-5 at PIP
Flexor digitorum brevis innervation Medial plantar N.
Abductor digiti minimi origin Lateral side of Calcaneal tuberosity
Abductor digiti minimi insertion Base of lateral side of proximal phalanx
Abductor digiti minimi action Abducts little toe, flexes at MP joint
Abductor digiti minimi innervation Lateral Plantar N.
Quadratus plantae origin Calcaneus deep to tuberosity
Quadratus plantae insertion Tendon of flexor digitorum longus
Quadratus plantae action Counters direction of pull of flexor digitorum longus
Quadratus plantae innervation Lateral Plantar N.
Lumbricals origin Digital tendons of flexor digitorum longus
Lumbricals insertion Dorsal expansion of digits 2-5, medial side
Lumbricals action Assist with flexion at MP joints
Lumbricals innervation 1st lumbrical: Medial Plantar N., 2-4 lumbricals: Lateral plantar N.
Flexor hallucis brevis origin Cuboid and lat. cuneiform bones
Flexor hallucis brevis insertion Base of proximal phalanx of big toe med. and lat. sides
Flexor hallucis brevis action Flex big toe at MP joint
Flexor hallucis brevis innervation Medial plantar N.
Adductor hallucis origin Oblique head: base of 2-4 metatarsals, Transverse head: Deep transverse ligament
Adductor hallucis insertion Base of proximal phalanx of big toe
Adductor hallucis action Adducts big toe
Adductor hallucis innervation Lat. Plantar N.
Flexor digitorum minimi brevis origin Base of metatarsal 5
Flexor digitorum minimi brevis insertion Base of proximal phalanx little toe
Flexor digitorum minimi brevis action Flexes MP joint of little toe
Flexor digitorum minimi brevis innervation Lat. Plantar N.
Plantar interossei origin Med. side of metatarsals 3-5
Plantar interossei insertion Base of proximal phalanges toes 3-5, medial side
Plantar interossei action adduct toes 3-5
Plantar interossei innervation Lat. plantar N.
Dorsal interossei origin Sides of metatarsals
Dorsal interossei insertion 1st: medial base of 2nd proximal phalanx. 2-4: Lat. side of proximal phalanges toes 2-4.
Dorsal interossei action Abducts toes 2-4
Dorsal interossei innervation Lat. plantar N.
Most common compartment syndrome Ant. compartment syndrome
Vasculature within ant. compartment of leg Ant. tibial artery
Vascularure of post. compartment of leg Post tibial artery and branch off it called fibular artery
Deep fascia of plantar foot Plantar aponeurosis
Most common cause of heel pain Plantar fascitis
Created by: dgullicks