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AP Governement

Court Cases

SCOTUS overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson in this case holding that school segregation was unconstitutional because it violated the 14th Amendment's guarantee of equal protection. Marked the end of legal segregation in the United States (1954) Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
(1803) SCOTUS gave itself power to check the other branches through judicial review: the right to hold actions of the other 2 branches unconstitutional. Strengthened the Court's abilities to restrain the other branches of government Marbury v. Madison
(1819) SCOTUS decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. Chief Justice JOHN MARSHALL and his colleagues held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers in the Constitution McCulloch v. Maryland
(1824) SCOTUS gave power to Congress to regulate commerce. (Broadly defined "commerce" to encompass nearly every form of commerical activity) Gibbons v. Ogden
(1833) SOCTUS decision holding that the Bill of Rights restrained ONLY THE NATIONAL GOVT, not the states and cities Barron v. Baltimore
(1925) SCOTUD decision held that freedoms of the press and speech are "fundemental personal rights and liberties protected by the due process clause of the 14th amend. from impairment by the states" as well as by the Federal govt. Gitlow v. New York
(1857) SCOTUS held that slaves could not be citizens and that former slaves could not be protected by the Constitution. Sharpened divisions in public opinion, led to civil war. Dred Scott v. Sanford
(1971) SCOTUS decision that established that aid to church related schools must (1) have a secular legislative purpose; (2)have a primary effect that neither advances or inhibits religion; (3) not foster excessive gov. entanglement w/ religion Lemon v. Kurtzman
(1919) SCOTUS upheld the conviction of a socialist who has urged young men to resist the draft during WWI. Justice Holmes declared govt. can limit speech if it provokes "clear and present danger" of substantive evils Schenck v. US
(1997) disputed provisions of the Communications Decency Act (CDA) unconstitutional under the First Amendment.The justices found that although sexually explicit material was "widely available" online, "users seldom encounter such content accidentally. Reno v. ACLU
(1973) SCOTUS decision that avoided defining "obscenity" by holding that community standards be used to determine whther material is obscene in terms of appealing to a "prurient interest" and being "patently offensive" and lacking in value Miller v. California
(1989) SCOTUS struck down a law banning the burning of the American Flag on the grounds that such action was symolic speech protected by 1st Amendment Texas v. Johnson
(1969) SCOTUS ruled that students had the right to wear armbands to school to protest the Vietnam War Tinker v. Des Moines
(1869) ruled that Texas had remained a state ever since it first joined the Union, despite its joining the Confederate States of America Texas v. White
(1961) SCOTUS ruled that 4th Amendment's protection against unreasonable searches and seizures must be extended to the states as well as the national govt. Mapp v. Ohio
(1971) SCOTUS ruled that any arbitrary gender-based classification violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th amend. ** 1st time SCOTUS upheld a claim for gender discrimination Reed v. Reed
(1896) SCOTUS ruled that a Louisiana law requiring "equal but seperate accommodations for the White and colored races" was constitutional- provided constitutional justification for segregation Plessy v. Ferguson
Congress prohibited federal aid to schools that remained segregated. Southern schools were suddenly integrated after (they had been trying for nearly a generation) Civil Rights Act of 1964
Equal Unemployment Opportunity Act
Equal Employment Opportunity Act
(1990) Congress required states to make facilities, such as state colleges and universities, assessible to individuals with disabilities- yet they provided no funds for this policy Americans with Disabilities Act
Created by: AHOLTHAUS