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AH nervous system

vocabulary words

QuestionAnswer
1.Neuron= cells of the nervous system specialized to transmit messages throughout the body
2.Soma= a part of a cell body
3.Dendrite= the branching extensions of neurons that carry electrical signals to the cell body
4.Synapse= the region of communication between neurons
5.Multipolar neuron= function as interneurons that transmit messaged from one part of the brain to the other
6.Bipolar neuron= a sensory neuron
7.Unipolar neuron= axon extends from the cell body; sensory neuron
8.Anaxonic neuron= neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body
9.Schwann Cell= one cell makes up a single segment of an axon’s myelin sheath
10.Myelin sheath= insulating envelope around myelin that surrounds the core of a nerve fiber
11.Electrical potential= work per unit of electric charge expended in moving a charged body from a reference point to any given point in an electric field
12.Current=a flow of elecrtic charge
13.Polarized= the smyelin tate of an unstimulated neuron or muscle cell in which the inside of the cell is relatively negative in comparison to the outside; the resting state
14.Neurotransmitter= chemical released by neurons that may, upon binding to receptors of neurons or effector cells, stimulate or inhabit them
15.Dopamine= a monomine neurotransmitter formed in the brain by the decarboxylation of dopa and essential to the normal functioning of the central nervous system
16.Serotonin= an organic compound found in the brain, blood syrum, and gastric mucus membranes
17.Somatic reflex= an involuntary control system characterized by a control loop which includes skeletal muscles
18.Visceral reflex= reflexes within the internal organs when the small intestine peristalis when it detects food
19.Meninges= the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
20.Dura mater= the outermost and toughest of the three membranes
21.Gray matter= the gray area of the central nervous system;
22.White matter= white substance of the central nervous system; the melinated nerve fibers
23.Cerebrum= the largest part of the brain
24.Cerebellum= part of the hindbrain; involved in producing smoothly coordinated skeletal muscle activity
25.Gyrus= an outward fold of the surface of the cerebral cortex
26.Sulcus= a furrow on the brain, less deep than a fissure
27.Brainstem= the portion of the brain consisting of the medulla, pons, and midbrain
28.Cortex= the outer surface layer of an organ
29.Blood-brain barrier= a mechanism that inhibits passage of materials from the blood into brain tissues
30.Medulla oblongata= lowermost portion of the vertebrate brain responsible for the control of respiration, circulation, and other bodily functions
31.Thalamus= a mass of gray matter in the diencephalo
n of the brain
32.Hypothalamus= the region of the diencephalon forming the floor of the third ventricle of the brain
33.Occipital lobe= the posterior lobe of each cerebral hemisphere
34.Parietal lobe= middle portion of each cerebral hemisphere
35.Frontal lobe= the front portion of each cerebral hemisphere
Created by: Nura