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Midterm- A&P

topic for anatomy midterm

Location/position used to explain exactly where one body structure is in relation to another.
• Superior Above toward the head end or upper part of a structure.
• Inferior below; away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure.
• Anterior (ventral) toward or at the front of the body; in front of.
• Posterior (dorsal) Toward or at the backside of the body; behind.
• Medial Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of.
• Lateral Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of.
• Intermediate Between a more medial and a more lateral structure.
• Proximal Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
• Distal Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
• Superficial (external) Toward or at the body surface.
• Deep (internal) Away from the body surface; more internal.
• Sagittal divides the body into left and right.
• Midsaggital (median) the cut is made down the median plane of the body and the right and left parts are equal in size.
• Frontal (coronal) a cut made along a lengthwise plane that divides the body (or an organ) into anterior and posterior parts.
• Transverse (cross section) cut made along a horizontal plane, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts.
• Dorsal body cavity 2 subdivisions; continuous.
• Cranial cavity space inside the bony skull.
• Spinal cavity extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column.
• Ventral body cavity contains all structures within the chest and the abdomen.
• Thoracic cavity separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by a dome-shaped muscle, the diaphragm.
• Mediastinum separates the lungs into right and left cavities in the thoracic cavity. It houses the heart, trachea and other visceral organs.
• Abdominopelvic cavity inferior to the diaphragm.
• Abdominal cavity contains stomach, liver intestines and other organs.
• Pelvic cavity reproductive organs, bladder and rectum.
• Nucleus control center of the cell.
• Cytoplasm the site of most cellular activities.
• Plasma membrane fragile, transparent barrier that contains the cell contents and separates them from the surrounding environment.
• Osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
• Diffusion Facilitated diffusion provides passage for certain needed substances (notably glucose) that are both lipid-insoluble and too large to pass through membrane pores.
Division Time in which the cell reproduces itself.
• Meiosis produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
• Mitosis division of the nucleus, results in formation of 2 daughter nuclei with exactly the same genes as the mother nucleus.
• Pigmentation-melanocytes cells that produce melanin
• First-degree burns only the epidermis is damaged. Red and Swollen.
• Second-degree burns involve injury to the epidermis and the upper region of the dermis. Red and painful and blisters.
• Third-degree burns destroys the entire thickness of the skin. Blanched (gray-white) or blackened, no pain.
• Pacinian deep pressure receptors.
• Meissner's pain receptors (free nerve endings) and touch receptors.
• Epidermis made up of stratified squamous epithelium capable of keratinizing or becoming hard and tough.
o Stratum basale/ germinativum deepest cell layer. Constantly undergoing cell division.
o Stratum spinosum and Stratum granulosum superficial layers.
o Stratum lucidum occurs only when the skin is hairless and extra thick. Palms of hands and soles of feet.
o Stratum corneum outermost layer. Double “overcoat” for the body.
• Dermis dense connective tissue.
o Subcutaneous tissue/ hypodermis adipose tissue. Shock absorber and insulation.
o Papillary layer upper dermal region. Furnishes nutrients to the epidermis.
o Reticular layer deepest skin layer. Contains blood vessels, sweat, oil glands and Pacinian corpuscles.
• Long bones longer than they are wide.
o Diaphysis shaft, makes up length of bone.
o Epiphyses ends of bones.
 Articular cartilage covers is external surface.
o Periosteum fibrous connective tissue.
o Epiphyseal line a remnant of the plate, seen in young growing bone.
o Yellow marrow/ medullary cavity storage area for adipose.
o Red marrow confined to the cavities of spongy bone of flat bones and the epiphyses of some long bones.
• Short bones cubed shaped, mostly spongy bone.
• Flat bones thin, flattened and usually curved.
• Irregular bones bones that do not fit into the other categories
• Ossification hyaline cartilage model is completely covered with bone matrix by bone-forming cells called osteoblasts. Then, the enclosed hyaline cartilage model is digested away, opening up a medullary cavity within the newly formed bone.
Axial skeleton the bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body.
Appendicular skeleton the bones of the limbs and girdles.
• Thorax That portion of the body trunk above the diaphragm and below the neck.
o Tarsus posterior half of the foot.
o Talus Ankle.
o Metatarsals forms the sole.
o Phalanges toes.
o Coxal bones/ ossae coxae hip bones
o Ilium connects posteriorly with the sacrum.
o Iliac crest the upper edge of the alae.
o Ischium “sit-down” bone.
o Pubis/pubic bone most anterior part of a coxal bone.
o False pelvis superior to the true pelvis; the area medial to the flaring portions of the illia.
o True pelvis surrounded by bone and lies inferior to the flaring parts of the illia and pelvic brim.
• Vertebra spinal column
• humerus the arm
• Radius lateral bone, the thumb side of the forearm.
• Ulna medial bone, pinky side.
• Tibia shin bone.
• Calcaneus heel bone.
• Clavicle collarbone.
• Scapula Shoulder blade.
• Sternum breast bone.
Created by: 682638472



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