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TeXes Prep

Content and Knowledge

QuestionAnswer
Learning Styles Audio, Visual, Tactile
Blooms Taxonomy Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation
Knowledge Facts
Comprehension Understanding
Application Can apply
Analysis Break down into parts
Synthesis Combine ideas to create
Evaluation Makes judgements
Phonology Sounds of Language
Phonemes Unit of sounds
Phonological Awareness Knowledge that
Morphology Combining sounds for meaningful units
Morphemes Smallest unit of meaning Cat = one cat Cats = 2 morphemes
Syntax Structure of a sentence or phrase, order of words make a difference in the meaning, "Mary likes Jim" "Jim likes Mary"
Semantics Meanings of words + phrases. To know "cat" is an animal. Comprehension of word meaning.
Pragmatics The rules of effective communication, ie. taking turns, politeness
Phonological Development Sounds of language. 2-3 months: cooing, babbling, 8-18 months first words
Semantic Development Words have meanings. Holophrase - a single word stands for a whole idea or sentence. ie. "milk" - give me milk now. Age 2 - begin using 2 words at a time.
Grammatical Development Preschoolers: begin using grammar, frequent mistakes "over regularization" sign they are actively learning.
Pragmatic Development Rules of Communication occur over time. Politeness etc.
Receptive Language Ability to understand message
Expressive Language Ability to express using language
Teacher should be sensitive to variations of formal assessments PPVI = Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test TOLD Test of Oral Language Development
Reccomendations for Speech or Language Development By age 4 most children can articulate all sounds. Some children continue to struggle with l,r,s and th
Activities to build language skills Scaffolding: adults helping children. Reading to child, discuss and share reaction.
Shared Reading Rhymes, songs and games. Participate in conversation. Thinking out loud\teacher. Props: show and tell
Interrelate oral and written langrage LEA: Language Experience Approach. Student dictates story to teacher who writes it down.
Connect spoken language with printed language. Textless books: Pictures\no print. They practice their vocabulary and appreciation of narrative. Retell or tell stories they know. Dialogic reading: hold conversation with child about a story just read. Word walls:
Adapt spoken language to various audiences: Focus on basic conventions: 1)politeness 2)tone of voice 3)responding to a question
Differences between 1:1 and group discussion 4)speaking up\volume 5)appropriate amount of information 6)eye contact. Role-playing
Listening Slills: Different Types: Critical Listening - to understand or evaluate. Listening for appreciation-to enjoy. Active listening works best with children. 1)encourage their participation 2)paraphrase important parts 3)ask them appropriate questions 4)taking notes
Evaluation of spoken messages Metacognition: aware of ones thought processes. Metalinguistic knowledge: ability to reflect on and evaluate language.
Metalinguistic knowledge ability to reflect on and evaluate language.
Metacognition aware of ones thought processes
Phonological Awareness Ability to notice and think about sounds "awareness of sounds"
Onset Consonant at beginning of syllable
Rime Vowel and consonants that follow - book /b/=onset; /ook/=rime
Phonemic Awareness able to identify the phonemes (sounds) that make up words.
Phonemic Awareness Skills (must haves) 1)rhyming: rep of sounds at end of words 2)alliteration: rep of sounds at beginning of words 3)blending: combining indiv. sounds to make a word 4)segmentation: dividing of words into sounds
Auditory Discrimination matures in infancy
Phonological and phonemic Awareness Must be taught over time *absolutely necessary for reading
Informal assessment observation
Formal Assessment TPRI; Texas Primary Reading Inventory
Instructional Approaches 1)Songs,stories, chants, rhymes, shared reading 2)Motor activities: ie. clap on rhyming word, syllables and their names 3) Language games 4)Word boxes-Elkin box 5)writing: attempts encourage phonological awareness.
Alphabetic Principle Understanding relationship between sounds and letters
English - Alphabetic lang. written with a leter for each sound (or phoneme)
Grapheme Letter or letters that represent a phoneme
Graphophonemic Knowledge Specific relationships between graphemes and phonemes between letters and sounds
Phonics Method of teaching
Alphabetic Skills Develop over time with instruction. Knowing the alphabet doesn't mean they know /A/ is A.
Alphabetic recognition Ability to recognize printed letters. Develops in tendem with graphophonemic knowledge. ie. as they learn how it looks, they learn the sound. By end of kinder, they can distinguish between upper and lower case letters.
Instruction (alphabetic) 1st High frequency consonants m, t, b (c) then short vowels (v). Simple CVC words (bat)
Alphabet Teaching Strategy(instruction) 1)songs, rhymes, and storytelling-alphabet song (it rhymes) 2)alphabet books: read to them, help children create their own 3)work boxes 4)alphabet displays and word walls 5) other ie. matching games (link picture of object with initial letter
Instructional approaches Multisensory tech. 1)magnetic letters 2) letter shoped cookie cutters 3)sand trays 4)sky writing. Variety is important to teach all children with different learning styles.*Integrate with meaningful activities link letters to words
Assessment Informal\young child: ask them to point to letters, sing alphabet, name letters, make a sound of a letter Older: given sets-asked to seperate upper and lower case letters, seperate vowels and consonants
Literacy Development Begins at birth
Emergent Literacy Child's beliefs and experiences before formal instruction
Conventional Literacy Reading and writhing taught in school = continuum of development
Print awareness unstanding of print facilitated by being read to
Environmental Print By age 2, print found in their environment ie. lables, signs and logos
Distinguish text from non-text Early attention to print is global -call attention to print text by tracing with finger as you read
Levels of literacy development 1)Emergent literacy begins at birth - fostered through conversations, games 2)pre-reader "reads" text he knows 3)Being read to increases voc. and teaches conventions of print, pretend writing
Writing Earliest-scribble, mock letters, true letters emerge. One letter stands for a whole word D for dad. Combos of letters appear MK=milk, invented spelling-encourage this
Incorporate literature into instruction Teachers - have variety of fiction and nofiction, different genres, book bags for individual child, have a library
Choral Reading Entire class reads out loud
Guided Reading 1)explain purpose for reading text 2)explain how to respond
Independent Reading By self
Genres that should be represented folklore, realistic fiction, historical fiction, science fiction, poetry, biographies, essays
Expository texts Information books
Basal Readers designed to foster a sequence of skills
Word Analysis Recognition of written words
Sight words words recognized instantly
Decoding Using phonic analysis to know how a written word sounds, Individual sounds and blend sounds
Diphthongs Adjacent vowels that are both heard "oy" in toy "out" "ou"
Consonant blends Adjacent consonantsb both heard "br" in Break
Digraphs Adjacent vowels or consonants heard as a single sound, "ch" in cherry, "ee" in meet
Phases of word analysis: development 1)in environmental print, recongnized words that are meaningful to them, ie. their name, restaurants they like, family car name 2)more analytical, develop word analysis, decoding strategies 3)recognize words in an automatic way
Ways to promote word recognition skills Directed instruction, modeling, guided practice, for early readers-sorting words, word walls, reading-shared reading point to words, writing material-manipulable, sight words, phonics
Goal of word analysis and decoding Meaningful communication through reading and writing
Teach in simple to complex progression 1-6 1)words in lower case 2)familiar words from spoken lang 3)single syllable words 4)1st simple CVC cat 5)words w\ continuous sounds(m) before words with stop sounds (p)unless stop sound comes at the end of word 6)words w\ similar letters(b+d)in bed should
Teach in simple to complex progression 7-9 7)words with single consonants before consonant clusters 8)words wih high frequency C like "t" first 9)words with rimes "ack" "ell" and "ump"
Use decodable texts (books they can read) 1)materials w\ letter-sound relationships a child already knows 2)helps child progress to silent reading 3)oral reading\choral reading good, teacher models phrasing, rhythm and punctuation -round robin frowned on 5)track and review irregular words
Teach multisyllabic words after monosyllabic are mastered, intro throughuse of words familiar to them ex. horseshoe and football
Teach how to use structural cues ID parts that are familiar to to ID whole word, use syntax and context for clues
Word Analysis and Decoding Assessment Running records over time, llisten to child read, note, tempo, accuracy, omission, repetitions and self-monitoring ie. self-correction=assess not just for accuracy but for strategies, assess comprehension as reading progresses Fluency\not mean comp.
Reading Fluency Student recognizes words as they read and flows smoothly
Development of Fluency Stage 1 Pre-reading stage:may have alphabetic + graphophonemic knowledge but unable to decode unfamiliar words
Dev of Fluency Stage 3 Fluency stage: decoding becomes automatic, fluent and expressive in their reading
Dev of Fluency Stage 2 Initial reading stage: 1 + 2nd gr, ea word decoding stage, is a problem to be solved
Dev of Fluency Stage 4 Reading to learn stage: focus is on content rather than on act of reading
Progress of fluency facilitated by 1)vocabulary development 2)sight words 3)ability to use semantic and grammatical cues
Apply norms to monitor fluency TORF: Test of Reading Fluency, timed reading samples, tracking # of words pronounced correctly
GORT-3: Gray Oral Reading Test: Reading rate, accuracy and comprehension assessed
Instructional methods to dev fluency 1-2 1)Effective modles: teachers, advanced students 2)Repeated reading: child rereads passage until fluency is abtained
Instructional methods to dev fluency 3-4 3)Oral Recitation Lessons: ORL: teacher models reading, passage discussed for meaning and prosodic features. Students practice-then give performance 4) Partner reading: poired reading, 1 reads if has a problems, asks partner for help, take turns
Instructional methods to dev fluency 5-6 5)familiar texts: utilize in all prior methods. Reduces word ID and comprehension demands. Focus on fluency 6)Independent-level material-texts that match their reading level.
Instructional methods to dev fluency 7-8 (7) Silent reading: contributes to fluency Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) Drop Everything and Read (DEAR) Make sure variety of books are read. (8) Self correction and feedback: Review: Fluent reading: read quickly, accurately, smoothly and with expression
Reading Fluency Read quickly, accurately, smoothly and with expression
Prosody Pitch, tempo, loudness and rhythm of language. Meaning of sentence and punctuation provide cues
Reading Comprehension understanding of written text
Influences on Ind. comprehension world knowledge, life experiences, vocabulary, reading ability, logical skills and schemata: clusters of ideas about stuff
Story schemata expectations one has developed about how a story proceeds
Story Grammar elements of a story and the rules that relate to those elements. Elements: setting, characters, plot and resolution
Literal Understanding what is explicitly stated in passage
Inferential Comprehension Understand what is implied
anaphera use of one word or phrase in place of another ie. "her" for "Mary"
Cause - effect relationship "The dog barked, the cat ran away" -the cat ran away because the day barked.
Make predictions "The mouse saw the cat" prediction - mouse ran away
Teacher can promote comprehension 1) providing background information 2) modeling the kinds of inferences to be used
Facilitate transition to "reading to learn" 1) discuss purpose of text - narrative (tell a story) vs expository (factual information) 2) discuss differences in organization of both
Approaches that build comprehension - Before reading text: 1) prvide background information 2) key vocabulary 3) text organization and intent\purpose 4) setup appropriate schemata
Approaches that build comprehension - After reading text 1) have a child summarize or retell orally or written 2) group discussion - good 3) encourage re-reading of parts or all text
Approaches that build comprehension - Before and after reading Use questioning strategies to help comprehension about main ideas, details, sequence of events
Question-answer relationships (QARs) 1) Right there - answers explicitly in text 2) Think and search - look for information in text - draw conclusions 3)Author and you: combo of information in text and students background knowledge 4) On your own: Call for evaluative responses
Help children monitor their comprehension 1)Directed Reading Activity (DRA) 2)Directed Reading - Thinking Activity (DR-TA) 3)KWL 4)Elements of leterary analysis 5)Story map
Directed Reading Activity (DRA) -Teacher helps develop schemata by relating it to student's experiences -supports silent reading with study guide questions -after reading give opportunity to practice knowledge and skills -finally enrichment activity are provided =teacher directed
Directed Reading - Thinking Activity (DR-TA) =student guided -students examine title - predict - examine illustrations - predict -silent read, check and revise predictions -make notes for discussion -discuss as a group
K-W-L Know: what I know Want: what I want to learn Learned: what I learned Promote metacognition
Story map Graphic representation of story elements
Elements of literary analysis -setting -characterization; discuss motivations and personalities -Plot, how intro, developed thru events and conclusions. All are connected -style; thru word choice and node of expression -theme
Content Literacy Ability to use texts as source of information in a topic
Teacher's role 1)introduce library 2)model strategies for using reference materials 3)provide support for comprehension 4)guiding discussion
SQ3R Method 1)survey: title, headings, introduce materials 2)questions: list questions you want answered (KWL-W) 3)Read: try to answer questions 4)Recite: answer questions you obtained without looking 5)Review: reread to verify answers
Teach use of text organizers: conventions of how texts are organized -Table of contents -summaries -headings -page numbers -glossaries -bibliographies
Help child use graphics - Map reading 1)Examine title\map of what? 2)Identify 4 characters on map 3)Identity legend 4)Grasp scale of map - consider how it's related to text
Basic types of graphs 1)Picture graphs - illustrate quantities 2)Bar - contrast quantities (vertical or horizontal bars) 3 Line - changes in quantities and other stuff over time 4)Pie charts - show part and whole relationships
Summarize and organize information A)Note taking -summ and para info -aid mem 1)Id source of info 2)Use key words and phrases 3)Don't worry about gramm 4)Enough info will make sense later 5)Dist b\t quotes and para B)Outlines: summ. info, org. info C)Graph org:visual rep of text conten
Created by: mitzi992
 

 



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