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site of spongy bone epiphysis
site of compact bone in adult diaphysis
site of hematopoiesis in adult red marrow and epiphysis
scientific name for bone shaft diaphysis
site of fat storage in the adult medullary cavity
site of longitudinal growth in a child epiphyseal plate
when blood calcim levels begin to drop below homeostatic levels, what is relases causing calcium to be released from the bone parathyroid hormone
mature bone cells that maintain bone in a viable state osteocyte
caused by paralysiis or sever lack of exercise results in muscle and bone ___________ atrophy
large tuberles and/or increased deposit of bony matrix occur at sites of_________ stress/tension
immature, or matrix depositing, bone cells are referred to as bone forming osteoblasts
causes blood calcium to be deposited in bones as calcium salts calcitonin
bones cells that liquefy (break down) bone matrix and release calcium to the blood(bone destroying cells located in the bone) osteoclasts
hollow tube of compact bone diaphysis
the hollow area inside the diaphysis of a bone that contains yellow bone marrow medullary cavity
ends of the bone epiphysis
where red bone marrow fills in small spaces in the spongy bone epiphysis
thin layer of cartiage covering each epiphysis, functions like a cushion if it were placed over the ends of bones where they form a joint articular cartilage
a strong fibrous membrane covering a long bone everywhere except at joint surfaces, where it covered by articular cartilage periosteum
thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity endosteum
what are the two major types of connective tissue bone and cartilage
needlelike threads of spongy bone that surrounds a network of spaces trabeculae
function of the skeletal system support and give shape to the body, protection of internal organs, movement, storage for calcium and minerals, blood cell formation
process of blood formation, vital process carried on the the red bone marrow hematopoiesis
soft connective tissure inside the hard walls of some bones red bone marrow
4 types of bones long, short, irregular, sesamoid
circular and tubelike, composed of calcified matrix arranged in multiple layers resembling the rings of an onion in microscopic structure osteons or haversian systems
name of circular rings that surround central canal that contains a blood vessel lamella
lie between the hard layers of the lamellae in little spaces called lacunae osteocytes
passageways that connect the lacunae with one another and with the central canal in osteon canaliculi
canals that run lengthwise(horizontal) through the bony matrix carrying blood vessels and nerves to all areas of the bone haversian system
process in which bones grow in diameter and are controlled by growth hormone and sex hormones appositional growth
when does the growth of long bones end when the epiphiseal plates are completely converted to bone adolesence
early bone development before birth is made up of cartilage and fibrous structure
process of bone formation from cartilage enchondrial ossification
_____ are chords or bands made of strong connective tissue that holds two bones together ligaments
remnants of the epiphyseal plate epipyseal line
fetal skull differs from adult skull by newborn skull contains fontanels infants facial bones are very small compared to the cranium
placed in bone matrix as hard calcium salts when blood calcium levels are to high hypercalcemia
the communication pathway is completed by _____ which run into the compact bone at right angles to the shaft volkmanns canal
_____deposited into the matrix give bone its hardness, which resists compression. the organic parts (especially the collagen fibers) provide for bones flexibility and great strength calcium salts
bones are remodeled continually in response to changes in two factors: calcium levels in the blood pull of gravity and muscles on the skeletono
osteoblast once trapped become osteocytes
common fractures in older people comminuted-breaks into many fragments compression-bone is crushed (common in porous bones) "osteroporotic"
common fracture in children that the bones breaks like a green twig greenstick
common in sports fracture that is a ragged break due to excessive twisting forces spiral
depressed fracture that the bone portion is pressed inward skull fracture
bone ends are forces together into each others end and occurs when attempting to break a fall impacted
disease in which childrens bones fail to calcify rickets
a fracture in which the bone breaks cleanly but does not penetrate the skin simple or closed
a fracture in which the bone ends penetrate through the skin compound
stages of bone repair hematoma forms, break is splinted by a fibocartilage callus,bony callus forms,bone remodeling occurs
most long bones are found in the limbs
appears to be solid and very dense with few holes compact bone
areas look like the cross beams of a house with lots of space between the bone spicules spongy bone
what makes up the skull, vertebre, and bony thorax axial skeleton
forms the forehead,bony projections under the eyebrows, and the superior part of each eye's orbit frontal
form most of the superior and lateral walls of the cranium. the meet the in the midleone of the skull at the sagittal suture and form the coronal suture, where they meet the frontal bone parietal bones
lie inferior to the parietal bones and join them at the squamous sutures temporal bones
cranium is composed of what kind of bones flatbones- 8
canal that leads to the eardrum and the middle ear. it is the route by which sound enters the ear external acoustic meatus
a sharp needlelike projection, is just inferior to the external auditory meatus many neck muscles use the is process as an attachment point styloid process
superior and middle nasal conchae formed from its projection and site of sella turica ethmoid
makes up the lateral and superior cranium occipital
site of mastoid process and where middle ear is located, and site of external acoustic meatus temporal bones
site of mental foramen and lower jaw mandible
four bones containing paranasal sinus sphenoid, ethmoid,frontal, maxillary
condyles articulate with the atlas and where the foramen magnum is located occipital
nasal septum vomer
bears an upward protrusion, the cocks comb or crista galla ethmoid
makes up the lateral and superior cranium occipital
site of mastoid process and where middle ear is located, and site of external acoustic meatus temporal bones
site of mental foramen and lower jaw mandible
four bones containing paranasal sinus sphenoid, ethmoid,frontal, maxillary
condyles articulate with the atlas and where the foramen magnum is located occipital
nasal septum vomer
bears an upward protrusion, the cocks comb or crista galla ethmoid
when a bone forms froma fibrous membrane, the process is called_______ossification membraneous
what is found in the inner periosteum layer osterblasts
what type of ossification centers appear in the epiphyses of a long bone secondary
in appositional growth, bone reabsorption occurs on the ____ surface endosteal
maturation of newly formed (noncalcified) bone matrix takes ____ days 10
structures that encloses the nerve cord vertebral arch
provides levers for the muscles to pull against spinous and transverse
provides an articulation point for the ribs body and transverse
openings allowing spinal nerves to pass intervertebral foramina
type of vertebra containing foramina in the transverse process, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain atlas,axis,cervical vertebra
its den provide a pivot for rotation of the first vervincal vertebra axis
transverse processes have facets for articulation with ribs, spinous process points sharply down containing T1-T1 thoracic vertebra
massive weight sustaining vertebra conting L1-L5 lumbar vertebra
tail bone, vestigal fused vertebrae coccyx
supports the head, allows rocking motion of the occipital condyles atlas
twelve compenents unfused thoracic vertebra
inverted discs are made up of fibrocartilage
exaggerated thoracic curvature kyphosis
vertebral colum is displaced scoliosis
organs protected by the thoracic cage lung and heart
ribs 1-7true, and 8-12 are false, 11-12 are called floating
ribs articulate posteriorly with___ and most connect anteriorly to the ____ thoracic vertebrae and sternam
bone found in the larynx and allows movement of the tongue hyoid
raised area on lateral surface of humerus toshich delotid muscle attaches deltoid tuberosity
point with scapula and clavicle connect acromion
socket in the scapula for the arm bone glenoid cavity
process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachemnet coracoid process
distal media process of the humerus, joins the ulna trochlea
rounded knob on the humerus that articulates with the radius capitulum
anterior depression, superior to the trochlea, recieves part of the ulna when the forearm is flexed coronoid fossa
Created by: bisonlea



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