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Brachial Plexus

Brachial Plexus: Muscle Action & Nerve Supply

Muscle (proximal to distal)Nerve, Cord, TrunkRoot LevelActivation
Rhomboid Major/Minor (1-2/2) Dorsalscapular N. C5 Retracts scapula. Rotates scapula to rest position
Supraspinatus (1/2) Suprascapular N., U trunk C5-6 Initiation of abduction of the arm
Infraspinatus (2/2) Suprascapular N., U trunk C5-6 Externally rotates humerus and stabilizes shoulder joint.
Pectoralis Major Lateral Pectoral N, lateral cord, U trunk/// Medial pectoral N, lateral & medial cords, M & L trunks Lateral Cord C5 C6 (Clavicular) Medial Cord C7 C8 T1 (Sternocostal) Clavicular head:flexes and adducts arm. Sternal head: adducts and medially rotates arm . Accessory for inspiration. Minor: Elevates ribs if scapula fixed, protracts scapula (assists serratus anterior)
Pectoralis Minor (Pectoralis Major) Medial Pectoral N, medial cord, L trunks. C8 T1 Elevates ribs if scapula fixed, protracts scapula (assists serratus anterior)Major: Clavicular head:flexes and adducts arm. Sternal head: adducts and medially rotates arm . Accessory for inspiration.
Biceps Brachii (2/3) Musculocutaneous N, lateral cord, U trunk C5 C6 Supinates forearm, flexes elbow, weakly flexes shoulder
Coracobrachialis (1/3) Musculocutaneous N, Lateral cord, U M trunks C5 C6 C7 Flexion of the humerus.
Brachialis (3/3) Musculocutaneous N, lateral cord, U trunk C5 C6 (May receive small C7-radial N) Flexes elbow (primary)
Serratus Anterior (1/1) Long Thoracic N C5 C6 C7 Forward flexion of the arm and pushing against resistance
Subscapularis Upper & Lower Subscapular N C5 C6 Medially rotates arm and stabilizes shoulder joint
Latissimus Dorsi Thoracodorsal N, posterior cord, U M L trunks C6 C7 C8 Extends, adducts and medially rotates arm. Costal attachment helps with deep inspiration and forced expiration
Teres Major (Subscapularis) Lower Subscapular N, posterior cord, U trunk C5 C6 Medially rotates and adducts arm. Stabilizes shoulder joint
Deltoid Axillary N., posterior cord, upper trunk C5 C6 Abducts arm, anterior fibers flex and medial rotate, posterior fibers extend and lateral rotate
Teres Minor Axillary N, posterior cord, upper trunk. C5 C6 laterally rotates arm and stabilizes shoulder joint
Levator Scapulae Dorsalscapular N C3 C4 C5 Neck Fixed: Raises medial border of scapula. Shoulder fixed: tilts head posteriolateral.
Triceps - Medial Head (1/14) Radial N, posterior cord, U M L trunks C6 C7 C8 Extension of the forearm at the elbow joint
Triceps - Long Head (2/14) Radial N, posterior cord, U M L trunks C6 C7 C8 Extension of the forearm at the elbow joint
Triceps - Lateral Head 3/14 Radial N, posterior cord, U M L trunks C6 C7 C8 Extension of the forearm at the elbow
Brachioradialis 4/14 Radial N, posterior cord, U trunk C5 C6 Flexion of the forearm in the neutral position
Ext. Carpi Radialis Longus/Brevis (5-6/14) Radial N, posterior cord, U & M trunks C5 C6 C7 Extension & radial deviation of the wrist
Supinator 7/14 Posterior interosseous nerve / Radial N / Posterior cord / upper trunk. C5 C6 Supination of the forearm
Ext. carpi ulnaris 8/14 Posterior interosseous nerve, Radial N, posterior cord, middle & lower trunk. C7 C8 Wrist extension with ulnar deviation
Ext. digitorum 9/14 Posterior interosseous nerve, Radial N, posterior cord, middle & lower trunks. C7 C8 Extension of the (proximal) phalanges in digits 2-5
Ext. digiti minimi 10/14 Posterior interosseous nerve, Radial N, posterior cord, middle & lower trunks. C7 C8 Extension of the (proximal) phalanges in digits 2-5
Abductor pollicus longus 11/14 Posterior interosseous nerve, Radial N, posterior cord, middle and lower trunks. C7 C8 Radial abduction and extension of the thumb
Ext. pollicus longus 12/14 Posterior interosseous nerve, Radial N, posterior cord, middle and lower trunks. C7 C8 Extension of the distal phalanx of the thumb
Ext. pollicus brevis 13/14 Posterior interosseous nerve, Radial N, posterior cord, middle and lower trunks. C7 C8 Extension of the proximal phalanx of the thumb
Ext. indices 14/14 Posterior interosseous nerve, Radial N, posterior cord, middle and lower trunks. C7 C8 Extension of the index finger.
Pronator Teres (1/11) Median N, lateral cord, upper and middle trunks C6 C7 Pronation of the forearm
Flexor Carpi Radialis (2/11) Median N, lateral cord, upper & middle trunks C6 C7 Flexion of the hand at the wrist with radial deviation
Palmaris Longus (3/11) Median N, lateral & medial cords, middle & lower trunks C7 C8 T1 Cupping of the palm of the hand
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (4/11) Median N, lateral & medial cords, middle & lower trunks C7 C8 T1 Flexion of the prox. interphalangeal joint, with the proximal phalanx fixed and the distal IPJ in hyperextension
Flexor Digitorum Profundus (5/11) Digits 2 &3-Anterior interosseous branch, Median N, Digits 4 & 5, Ulnar nerve, medial cord C7 C8 / C8 T1 Flexion of the distal phalanges 2-5
Flexor Pollicis Longus (6/11) Anterior interosseous branch, Median N, lat & med cords, middle & lower trunks C7 C8 T1 Flexion of the distal phalanx of the thumb
Pronator Quadratus (7/11) Anterior interosseous branch, Median N, lat & med cords, middle & lower trunks C7 C8 T1 Pronation of the forearm
1st & 2nd Lumbricals (8/11) Median N, medial cord, lower trunk C8 T1 Extention of the finger at the proximal interphalangeal joint with the metacarpophalangeal joint extended and fixed
Flexor Pollicis Brevis (9/11) Superficial head: Median N, Deep head: Ulnar N, medial cord, lower trunk C8 T1 Flexing of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb
Opponens Pollicis (10/11) Median nerve, medial cord, lower trunk C8 T1 Opposition of the thumb to the little finger
Abductor Pollicis Brevis (11/11) Median nerve, medial cord, lower trunk C8 T1 Abduction of the thumb
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (1/11) Ulnar N, medial cord, L trunk C8 T1 Flexion at the wrist with ulnar deviation
Flexor Digitorum Profundus digits 4-5 (2/11) Ulnar nerve, medial cord, L trunk C8 T1 Flexion of the distal phalanges of digit 4 & 5
flexor Digiti Minimi (3/11) Ulnar N, medial cord, L trunk C8 T1 Flexion of the proximal phalanx of the 5 digit
Opponens Digiti Minimi (4/11) Ulnar N, medial cord, L trunk C8 T1 Opposition of the little finger to the thumb
Abductor Digiti Minimi (5/11) Ulnar N, medial cord, L trunk C8 T1 Abduction of the little finger
3th & 4th Lumbricals (6/11) Ulnar nerve, medial cord, L trunk C8 T1 Extension of the finger at the proximal interphalangeal joint with the metacarpophalangeal joint extended and fixed
Palmar Interossei (7/11) Ulnar N, medial cord, L trunk C8 T1 Adduct the fingers towards the center of the 3rd finger.
2nd, 3rd, 4th Dorsal Interossei (8/11) Ulnar N, medial cord, L trunk C8 T1 2nd: Abduction of the third digit (radial deviation). 3rd & 4th: Adduction of the 3rd & 4th digit (ulnar deviation)
First dorsal Interosseous (9/11) Ulnar N, medial cord, L trunk C8 T1 Abduction (radial deviation) of the index finger
Flexor Pollicis Brevis (10/11) Superficial head: median nerve. Deep head: Ulnar N. C8 T1 Flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb
Adductor Pollicus (11/11) Ulnar nerve, medial cord, L trunk C8 T1 Adduction of the thumb
Created by: aloha125