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Civil rights/liberty

Civil rights/liberti

• Establishment Clause- prohibits the establishment of a church officially supported be the national government
• Free Exercise Clause- national government can’t prohibit people from practicing the religion of their choice
• Lemon Test- government aid has to be non-religious, couldn’t advance or inhibit religion, must avoid excessive entanglement with religion
• Oregon v. Smith- arrested 2 guys for doing peyote
• Gitlow v. New York- speech can be limited if it might lead to evil
• Privacy- not explicitly found in the constitution
• Court’s stance on abortion, including decisions on the Pennsylvania law discussed in class- pre-abortion counseling, 24 hr waiting period, under 18 needs parental or judicial permission
• Gideon v. Wainright right to an attorney
• Miranda Rights rights they read you when you are arrested
• Mapp v. Ohio policy forbidding the admission at trial of illegally seized evidence was created
• Dred Scott slaves were not US citizens, and Missouri compromise was unconstitutional • Know the things that technically ended slavery-emancipation proclamation, 13th & 14th amendment
• Civil Rights Acts of 1865-1875- effective? Why or why not? no, courts decided that discriminatory acts of private citizens were not illegal
• Separate But Equal Doctrine doctrine holding that separate but equal facilities do not violate the equal protection clause
• Understand techniques used to prevent African Americans from voting -white primary(whites only), grandfather clause (if your grandfather could vote before 1867 & can prove it), poll taxes, literacy laws
• Lincoln’s intent with the Emancipation Proclamation- to gain voters
• De Jure- occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies
• De Facto segregation occurs because of past social & economic conditions & residential racial patterns
• School Integration/Busing -forced integration of schools where they bused children in from various locations
• Brown cases- o 1951- Browns 8 yr old daughter was forced to travel further to go to a non-white school o 1954- unanimous decision saying that segregation in public schools violated equal protection o 1955- made sure that all African American would be admitted to sch
• Beginning of the Civil Rights movement- what started it?- Rosa Parks was the first to take a stand and be noticed, and caused the act to gain momentum and weight
• Civil Disobedience- a non-violent, public refusal to obey allegedly unjust laws
• Civil Rights Act of 1964- o Most effective & comprehensive o Outlawed voter discrimination o No discrimination in public accommodations o Federal government sue to make you desegregate public schools/facilities
Civil Rights Act of 1964 o Expanded power of civil rights commission o Withhold federal funds from programs that discriminate o Established right to equality of opportunity in employment
• Voting Rights Act of 1965- o Outlawed voter-registration tests o Have to follow federal rules regarding registration & voting procedures
• Founding Fathers stance on women’s right to vote- it was unnecessary and foolish
• Woman’s Suffrage Association improvement in economic & social situations of women
• First political movement women were involved with- abolishment of slavery
• The Congressional Union- o Strategy  To adopt an amendment to the constitution  Large scale marches  Civil disobedience  Hunger strikes  Many were arrested/jailed o Result-1920 the 19th amendment was passed
• Women’s divisive issues- some were more extreme than others, so they were constantly bickering over things such as extreme feminism and abortion
• Equal Pay Act of 1963- purpose - Women and men must get equal pay
• Affirmative Action, what is it?, current state- a policy that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups
• Reverse Discrimination- the charge that an affirmative action program discriminates against those who did not have minority status
• Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)- o Didn’t rule against affirmative action o Race can be a factor in admissions o Race cannot be sole factor for granting admission
• ADA- o All public buildings and public services be accessible o Employers must accommodate needs o Car rental companies must make accommodations o Telephone companies must pass messages
ADA restrictions o Does not require that unqualified applicants with disabilities be hired or retained
• Sutton v. United Airlines, Inc.- If a disability can be corrected, it isn’t a disability
• Gay rights in the 70’s and 80’s courts were more sympathetic towards gays and lesbians
• Bowers v. Hardwick- courts upheld a Georgia law making homosexual conduct illegal
• Oregon’s Death With Dignity Act- may be assisted in death by a licensed physician, must have 2 witnesses (one of whom is not family), and mental health must be evaluated
• Defense of Marriage Act of 1996 -bans federal recognition of lesbian and gay couples and allows state government to ignore same-sex marriage performed in other states
• Know the things that technically ended slavery- emancipation proclamation, 13th & 14th amendment
Created by: Emily Ann
Popular American Government sets




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