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Myopia nearsightedness; focal point is in front of the retina, ex. in a longer than normal eyeball
hyperopia farsightedness; focal point is behind the retina, ex. in a shorter than normal eyeball
astigmatism caused by unequal curvatures in different parts of the cornea or lens
presbyobia loss of near vision with age due to lens becoming more dense and less flexible with age
caratacts clouding of lens due to aging, diabetes mellitus, heavy smoking, and frequent exposure to intense sunlight
lens fibers cells filled with the transparent protein crystallin
pigmented layer of retina pigmented, outer layer, absorbs light and prevents its scattering, stores vitamin a
neural layer of retina photoreceptor; transduce light energy
cells that transmit and process signals in neural layer bipolar cells, ganglion cells, amacrine cells, and horizontal cells
photopigments visual pigments in outer segments of rods and cones that change shape as they absorb light
rods numerous in peripheral region of retina, operate in dim light, provide indistinct, fuzzy, non color peripheral vision
cones in macula lutea; concentrated in fovea centralis, operate in bright light, provide high acuity color vision
rhodospin visual pigment in rods, embedded in the membrane that forms discs in outer segment
color blindness due to cogenital lack of one or more of the cone types (blue, green, and red)
phototransduction (dark) cGMP binds to and opens cation channels in the outer segments of photoreceptor cells (Na and Ca influx creates a depolarizing dark potential of about -40 mV)
phototransduction (light) light activated rhodopsin activates a g protein, transducin; activates PDE; hydrolyzes cGMP to GMP and releases from Na channels. w/o cGmp, Na channels close and membrane hyperpolarizes to about -70 mV
depth perception both eyes view the same image from slightly different angles; results from cortical fusion of slightly different images
lateral geniculate nuclei of thalamus relay info on movement, segregate the retinal axons in preparation for depth perception, emphasize visual inputs from regions of high cone density, sharpen contrast info
what are the two areas of the visual cortex? striate cortex (primary), prestriate cortex (association area)
temporal lobe (vision) processes identification of objects
parietal cortex and postcentral gyrus (vision) process spatial location
blindness caused by lesions in key components of the eye or in the brain
striate cortex primary visual cortex; processes contrast information and object orientation
prestriate cortices visual association areas; processes form color, and motion input from striate cortex
olfaction taste and smell
chemical senses chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in aqueous solution
olfactory pathway olfactory receptor cells synapse with mitral cells in glomeruli of olfactory bulbs; mitril cells amplify, refine, and relay signals along tracts to the olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic system
what papillae are associated with taste buds? fungiform, foliate, and circumvallate papillae
structure of a taste bud basal cells (dynamic stem cells) gustatory cells (taste cells) microvilli (gustatory hairs) project through taste pore to surface
what are the five basic taste sensations? sweet(sugars, saccharin, alcohol,and some amino acids, sour (hydrogen ions), salt (metal ions), bitter (alkaloids quinine and nicotine), umami(glutamate and aspartate)
bony labyrinth tortuous channels in temporal bone; three parts : vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea
helicotrema (apex) where scalae tympani and vestibuli are continuous
bending of stereocilia opens mechanicaly gated ion channels. inward K and Ca current causes a graded potential and the release of neurotransmitter glutamate; cochlear fibers transmit impulses to the brain
localization of sound depends on relative intensity and relative timing of sound waves reaching both ears
conduction deafness blocked sound conduction to the fluids of the internal ear; can result from impacted earwax, perforated eardrum, or otosclerosis of ossicles
sensorineural deafness damage to neural structures at any point from cochlear hair cells to auditory cortical cells
tinnitus ringing or clicking sound in the ears in the absence of auditory stimuli; due to cochlear nerve degeneration, inflammation of middle or internal ears, side effects of aspirin
menieres syndrome labyrinth disorder that affects the cochlea and semicircular canals; causes vertigo, nausea, and vomiting
vestibular receptors monitor? static equilibrium
semicircular canal receptors monitor? dynamic equilibrium
crista ampullaris sensory receptor for dynamic equilibrium; one in the ampulla of each semicircular canal; major stimuli are rotatory movements
bending hairs in cristae causes depolarizations, rapid impulses reach brain at faster rate
bending of hairs in opposite direction in cristae causes hyperpolarizations and fewer impules reach the brain
input for balance and orientation vestibular receptors, visual receptors, somatic receptors
hyperopic seeing only gray tones, as in babies after birth
Created by: hberglund



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