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PNS final

what makes up the peripheral nervous system? all neural structures outside the brain: sensory receptors, peripheral nerves and associated ganglia, motor endings
activation of sensory receptors results in what kind of potential? graded; then triggers a nerve impulse
receptors are classified based on what? stimulus type, location, structural complexity
what are the stimulus type classifications of receptors? mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, nociceptors
Exteroreceptors respond to? stimuli outside the body, touch, pressure, pain, temperature, most special sense organs
interoceptors (visceroceptors) respond to? stimuli arising in internal viscera and blood vessels, chemical changes, tissue stretch, temperature changes
proprioceptors respond to? stretch in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, ligaments, connective tissue coverings; inform brain of movements
Complex receptors are? special sense receptors
Simple receptors are? general sense; tactile sensations, temperatur, pain, muscle sense; unencapsulated of encapsulated dendritic endings
Unencapsulated dendritic endings refer to? thermoreceptors; cold in superficial dermis and heat in deeper dermis; Nociceptors (pinching, chemicals, temp, capsaicin; light touch receptors (merkel discs, hair follicles)
Encapsulated dendritic endings refer to? all are mechanoreceptors (meissners, pacinian, ruffini, muscle spindles, golgi tendon organs, joint kinesthetics)
sensation awareness of changes in the internal and external environment
perception the conscious interpretation of stimuli
what are the levels of sensory integration? receptor level, circuit level, perceptual level
adaptation change in sensitivity in the presence of a constant stimulus
phasic receptors fast adapting receptors that signal the beginning or the end of a stimulus
tonic receptors slow adapting receptors that adapt slowly or not at all (nociceptors and most proprioceptors)
first order neurons (circuit level) conduct impulses from the receptor level to the second order neurons in the cns
second order neurons (circuit level) transmit impulses to the thalamus or cerebellum
third order neurons (circuit level) conduct impulses from the thalamus to the somatosensory cortex (perceptual level)
perceptual detection (perceptual level) ability to detect a stimulus (requires summation of impulses)
magnitude estimation (perceptual level) intensity is coded in the frequency of impulses
spatial discrimination (perceptual level) identifying the site or pattern of the stimulus (2 point discrimination test)
feature abstraction identification of more complex aspects and several stimulus properties
quality discrimination the ability to identify submodalities of a sensation (sweet or sour taste)
pattern recognition recognition of a familiar or significant patterns in stimuli (melody in music)
how does perception of pain work? impulses travel of fibers that release neurotransmitters glutamate and substance P
how do opiods work on pain? block pain impulses
dorsal root ganglia sensory, somatic
autonomic ganglia motor, visceral
regeneration of nerve fibers involve coordinated activity of what 3 things? macrophages, schwann cells, axons
motor endings pns elements that activate effectors by releasing neurotransmitters
inborn (intrinsic reflex) rapid, involuntary, predictable motor response to a stimulus
learned (acquired) reflex result from practice of repetition ex. driving
how do strech reflexes work? stretch activates muscle spindle, lla sensory neurons synaps directly with beta motor neurons in the spinal cord, beta motor neurons case the stretch muscle to contract
all stretch reflexes are? monosynaptic and ipsilateral
reciprocal inhibition lla fibers synapse with interneurons that inhibit the beta motor neurons of antagonistic muscles ex. patellar reflex
golgi tendon reflexes help to prevent damage due to excessive stretch, important for smooth onset and termination of muscle contraction
what activates golgi tendon organs? contraction or passive stretch
superficial reflexes elicited by cutaneous stimulation; depend on upper motor pathways and cordlevel reflex arcs ex. plantar reflex
babinski's sign plantar reflex gone wrong
why does muscle tone lessen with age? sensory receptors atrophy with age due to loss of neurons, decreased numbers of synapses per neuron, and slower central processing
Created by: hberglund