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Anatomy Qtr 2

Rigid elements of a skeleton meet at articulations or joints. These can be.... *Bone to Bone *Bone to Cartilage *Teeth in bony sockets
The structure of joints enables... Resistance to crushing, tearing, and other forces
Name the 3 joint classifications based on the amount of movement they allow Synarthroses, Amphiarthroses, Diarthroses
An immovable joint common in the axial skeleton Synarthroses
A slightly movable joint common in the axial skeleton Amphiarthroses
A freely movable joint common in the appendicular skeleton Diarthroses
Name 3 structural classifications of joints Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial
Name the joint classification that has a joint cavity Synovial
Describe fibrous joints *Connected by fibrous connective tissue *Do not have a joint cavity *Immovable or slightly movable
Name the 3 types of fibrous joints Sutures, Syndesmoses, Gomphoses
Term for closed sutures Synostoses
What does fibrous tissue do as we age? Ossifies
Describe cartilaginous joints *Bones are united by cartilage *Lack a joint cavity
Name the 2 types of cartilaginous joints Synchondroses & Symphyses
Name examples of synchondroses *Growth Plates *Joint between the first rib and the manubrium
Describe symphyses and name examples *Fibrocartilage unites the bones and resists tension & compression *Slightly movable joints that provide strength with flexibility *Intervertebral Discs & Pubic Symphysis
Describe synovial joints *Most movable type of joint *All are diarthroses *Contain a cavity filled with synovial fluid *Ends of opposing bones are covered with hyaline cartilage *Innervated & Vascularized
Two layered capsule that encloses the synovial joint cavity Articular Capsule
Name the 2 layers in the articular capsule *Fibrous capsule-dense irregular connective tissue that is the outer layer *Synovial Membrane-loose connective tissue that is the inner layer
A viscous fluid that is similar to egg white that arises from capillaries in the synovial membrane, contains glycoprotein molecules Synovial Fluid
Reinforcing ligaments located outside the articular capsule Extracapsular Ligaments
Reinforcing ligaments located internal to the articular capsule Intracapsular Ligaments
What does the synovial joint of the knee contain between the articulating bones that are different shapes? Articular Disc
A flattened fibrous sac lined by a synovial membrane that reduces friction between body elements Bursa
An elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon Tendon Sheath
What are some factors that can influence joint stability? *The amount of ligaments present, the more ligaments the stronger the joint *Muscle tone, the most important factor in joint stability
What is the most important factor in joint stability? Muscle Tone
Name the 3 basic types of movement allowed by synovial joints Gliding, Angular, Rotation
Describe gliding joints *Flat surface of two bones slip across one another ex: In the carpals, tarsals, articular processes of vertebrae
Name some angular movements *Flexion & Extension *Abduction & Adduction *Circumduction
The decrease in the angle between two bones Flexion
The increase in the angle between two bones Extension
Moving a limb away from the body midline Abduction
Moving a limb toward the body midline Adduction
Moving a limb or finger so that it describes a cone in space Circumduction
Name the only movement allowed between the axis & atlas, and also occurs in the hip & shoulder joints Rotation
Forearm rotates laterally, palm faces anteriorly Supination
Forearm rotates medially, palm faces posteriorly Pronation
Lifting the foot so its superior surface approaches the shin Dorsiflexion
Depressing the foot and pointing the toes Plantar Flexion
Turning the sole medially Inversion
Turning the sole laterally Eversion
Non-angular movement of jutting out the jaw Protraction
Opposite movement of protraction; the movement of pulling the jaw back Retraction
Lifting a body superiorly Elevation
Moving the elevated part inferiorly Depression
Movement of the thumb to touch the tips of other fingers Opposition
Joint that allows short gliding movements and the articular surfaces are flat planes Plane Joint
Joint where the cylindrical end of one bone fits into a trough on another bone, movement is uniaxial ex: Elbow, Knee, Ankle Joints Hinge Joints
Joint where the rotating bone only turns around its long axis, movement classified as uniaxial ex: Proximal Radioulnar Joint, Joint between the atlas and axis Pivot Joint
Joint where the spherical head of one bone fits into the round socket of another, movement is classified as multiaxial ex: Shoulder and Hip Joints Ball and Socket Joint
Name the 3 types of muscle tissue and a description of each Skeletal: Striated, voluntary Cardiac: occurs in the walls of the heart, involuntary, striated Smooth: occurs in the walls of hollow organs, lack striations, involuntary
The study of muscles Myology
Name 4 functions of muscle tissue Movement, Maintenance of Posture, Joint Stabilization, Heat Generation
Name 4 functional features of muscles Contractility, Excitability, Extensibility, Elasticity
Name the 3 types of connective tissue sheaths Epimysium, Perimysium, Endomysium
Dense, irregular connective tissue surrounding the entire muscle Epimysium
Fibrous connective tissue that surrounds each fascicle Fascicle: group of muscle fibers Perimysium
A fine sheath of connective tissue wrapping each muscle cell Endomysium
Less movable muscle attachment Origin
More movable muscle attachment Insertion
Where is the insertion pulled when the muscle contracts? The insertion is pulled toward the origin
Muscle attachment where the connective tissue fibers are short Fleshy Attachments
Muscle attachment where the connective tissue forms a tendon or aponeurosis Indirect Attachment
What type of muscle have opposing actions? Antagonistic
What type of muscles work together to perform the same action? Synergistic
*Muscle of the chest (anterior thorax) *Fan shaped muscle that converges & inserts on the humerus *Action: arm adduction Pectoralis Major
*Muscle between the ribs *Action: to elevate the ribs in breathing *Increases the thoracic cavity *Muscles of Inspiration External Intercostals
*Muscles between the ribs *Action: to depress the ribs in breathing *Decreases the thoracic cavity *Muscles of Expiration Internal Intercostals
*Dome shaped muscle that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity *Origin: sternum, ribs, vertebrae *Insertion: central tendon of the diaphragm *Action: increases the thoracic capacity Diaphragm (Phrenic Muscle)
Name what passes through the 3 openings in the diaphragm For the vena cava, the aorta, and the esophagus
*Upper back muscle *Actions: elevates, retracts, and rotates the scapula Trapezius
*Lower back muscle *Actions: extends, adducts, and rotates the humerus Latissimus Dorsi
*Anteromedial abdominal muscle that had horizontal tendinous intersections *Action: flexes the trunk Rectus Abdominous
White tendinous structure located at the midline of the abdomen Linea Alba
*Most superficial of the anterolateral abdominal muscles *Insertion: Linea Alba *Action: Compresses the abdomen External Obliques
*Intermediate in depth of the anterolateral abdominal muscles *Insertion: Linea Alba *Action: Compresses the abdomen Internal Obliques
*Deepest of the anterolateral abdominal muscles *Insertion: Linea Alba *Action: Compresses the abdomen Transverse Abdominus
*Posterior abdominal wall muscle *Action: Flexes the thigh Psoas Major
*Rounded muscle mass of the shoulder *Insertion: Deltoid tuberocity of the humerus *Action: Flexes, rotates, and abducts the arm Deltoid
*Muscle of the shoulder *Action: Adducts and rotates the arm Teres Major
Name the rotator cuff muscles *Supraspinatus *Infraspinatus *Teres Minor *Subscapularis
*Two-headed muscle of the anterior arm *Action: Forearm flexion Biceps Brachii
*Muscle of the anterior arm *Action: Forearm flexion Brachialis
*Muscle of the posterior arm *Action: Forearm extension Triceps Brachii
*Muscle of the anterior forearm *Action: Wrist Flexion Flexor Carpi Radialis & Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
*Muscle of the anterior forearm *Action: Flexion of the phalanges Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
*Forearm Muscle *Action: Flexes the forearm Brachioradialis
*Forearm Muscle *Action: Supination Supinator
*Largest & most superficial of the gluteal muscles *Action: Extends the thigh Gluteus Maximus
*Inner thigh muscle *Action: Thigh adduction Adductor Longus & Adductor Magnus
*Anterior thigh muscle that runs obliquely across the anterior thigh *Longest muscle of the body *Action: Leg flexion and rotation Sartorius aka: The Tailor's Muscle
Name the quadriceps muscles *The anterior thigh muscles that extend the leg *Rectus Femoris *Vastus Lateralis *Vastus Medialis *Vastus Intermedius
Name the hamstring muscles *Posterior thigh muscles that flex the leg *Biceps Femoris *Semitendinosus *Semimembranosus
*Posterior knee *Action: Rotates the leg Popliteus
*Anterior leg *Action: Dorsiflexion Tibialis Anterior
*Posterior leg; superficial calf muscle *Insertion: Inserts on the posterior calcaneous via the calcaneal tendon (achilles) *Action: Plantar Flexion Gastrocnemius
*Posterior leg; calf muscle located deep to the gastrocnemius *Action: Plantar flexion Soleus
What is the command and control center of the body? Nervous System
What are the 2 basic divisions of the nervous system? *Central Nervous System (CNS) *Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
What are the basic components of the CNS? Brain & Spinal Cord
What are the basic components of the PNS? Cranial Nerves & Spinal Nerves
Signals that move toward the central nervous system Sensory Signals **Afferent
Signals that move away from the CNS Motor Signals **Efferent
The main body of a neuron Cell Body
The nerve fiber that transmits impulses away; part of the neuron Axon
Part of a neuron that is the receiver, they branch away from the cell body Dendrites
What are the functions of supporting cells? *AKA Neuroglial Cells *Non-excitable *Insulate, Protect, Nourish the neuron
The layer of delicate connective tissue surrounding the axon Endoneurium
The connective tissue wrapping surrounding a nerve fascicle Perineurium
The whole nerve is surrounded by a tough fibrous sheath Epineurium
Name the 4 basic parts of the brain *Cerebrum *Diencephalon *Brainstem *Cerebellum
Name the 3 parts of the diencephalon *Thalamus *Hypothalamus *Epithalamus
Name the 3 parts of the brainstem *Midbrain *Pons *Medulla Oblongata
What are the extensions of the brain's central cavity? Ventricles
Where is cerebral spinal fluid produced in the ventricles? In the choroid plexuses
The opening between the lateral ventricles and the 3rd ventricle Foramen of Monro/Interventricular Foramen
The opening that lies between the 3rd & 4th ventricles Aqueduct of Sylvius/Cerebral Aqueduct
The opening that connects the ventricles with the subarachnoid space; allows CSF to bathe the entire CNS Foramen of Magendie & Foramen of Luschke
The fissure that separates the right and left hemispheres of the brain Median Longitudinal Fissure
The many grooves on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres Sulci
The twisted ridges of tissue between the sulci Gyri
Name the 5 lobes of the brain Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Insula
Name the 3 primary tissue types in the brain *Cerebral Cortex *White Matter *Deep Gray Matter AKA Basal Ganglia, Basal Nuclei
*"Gateway" to the cerebral cortex *Makes up 80% of the diencephalon *Nuclei organize & amplify/tone down signals Thalamus
The main visceral control center of the body Hypothalamus
The part of the diencephalon that includes the pineal gland, and secretes melatonin which signals the body to prepare for the nighttime stage of the sleep-wake cycle Epithalamus
Where do the cranial nerves III-XII attach? The brainstem
*Located dorsal to the pons & medulla *Controls balance and muscle coordination Cerebellum
Name the 3 layers of the meninges *Dura Mater *Arachnoid Mater *Pia Mater
The most superficial layer of the meninges that is made up of two layers (periosteal & meningeal) Dura Mater
Name the intermediate layer of the meninges Arachnoid Mater
Name the deepest layer of the meninges Pia Mater
What do the meninges do? Cover and protect the CNS
Provides a liquid cushion for the brain and spinal cord *produced in the choroid plexuses Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
What does the blood-brain barrier do? It prevents most blood-bourne toxins from entering the brain. These capillaries are some of the least permeable in the body.
Runs through the vertebral canal from the foramen magnum to the level of L1 or L2 Spinal Cord
The inferior end of the spinal cord Conus Medularis
Attaches the conus medularis to the coccyx inferiorly Filum Terminale
The part of the spinal cord where the spinal nerves for the upper limbs arise Cervical Enlargement
The part of the spinal cord where the spinal nerves for the lower limbs arise Lumbar Enlargement
The spinal nerves that arise from the terminal end of the spinal cord Cauda Equina
Ligaments that anchor the spinal cord to the vertebrae Denticulate Ligaments
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there? 12 Pairs
Cranial Nerve I Olfactory Nerve-> sensory nerve of smell
Cranial Nerve II Optic Nerve-> sensory nerve of vision
Cranial Nerve III Oculomotor Nerve-> innervates 4 of the extrinsic eye muscles
Cranial Nerve IV Trochlear Nerve-> innervates an extrinsic eye muscle
Cranial Nerve V Trigeminal Nerve-> provides sensory innervation to the face (specifically the pterygoid muscles)
Cranial Nerve VI Abducens Nerve-> abducts the eyeball
Cranial Nerve VII Facial Nerve-> innervates muscles of facial expression *there are 5 primary divisions
Cranial Nerve VIII Vestibulocochlear Nerve-> sensory nerve of hearing and balance
Cranial Nerve IX Glossopharangeal Nerve-> innervates the structures of the tongue and pharynx
Cranial Nerve X Vagus Nerve-> mixed sensory & motor nerve; wanders into the thorax & abdomen
Cranial Nerve XI Accessory Nerve-> accessory part of the vagus nerve
Cranial Nerve XII Hypoglossal Nerve-> innervates the tongue muscles; runs inferior to the tongue
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? 31 Pairs
How many pairs of nerves are in the cervical-brachial plexus? 8 Pairs
How many pairs of nerves are in the thoracic plexus? 12 Pairs
How many pairs of nerves are in the lumbar plexus? 5 Pairs
How many pairs of nerves are in the sacral plexus? 5 Pairs
How many pairs of nerves are in the coccygeal plexus? 1 Pair
What is the autonomic nervous system also known as? Involuntary Nervous System
Name the 2 divisions of the ANS *Sympathetic Division *Parasympathetic Division
Describe the sympathetic division of the ANS *Fight, Flight, Fright *Activated during exercise, excitement, & emergencies
Describe the parasympathetic division of the ANS *Resting & Digesting *Concerned with conserving energy
Created by: sbarton



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