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ANS final

ans consists of motor neurons that? innervate smooth and cardiac muscle and glands; make adjustments to ensure optimal support for body activites, subconscious
parasympathetic division conserves body energy, restin and digestion
sympathetic division fight or flight system, adjustments during exercise
sympathetic tone (vasomotor tone) keeps blood vessels in continual state of partial constriction, even at rest
receives only sympathetic fibers adrenal medulla, sweat glands, arrector pilli, kidneys, most blood vessels
sympathetic system controls? thermoregulatory responses to heat, release of relin from kidneys, metabolic effects (increases metabolic rate of cells, raises blood glucose, mobilizes fats for fuel)
parasympathetic tone slows heart, dictates normal activity levels of digestive and urinary tract; can be overridden by sympathetic division during stress
cooperative effects parasympathetic fibers cause erection (vasodilation); sympathetic cause ejaculation of semen and reflex contraction
parasympathetic effects vs. sympathetic effects para is short lived, highly localized over effectors; sympathetic is long lasting, bodywide effects
visceral reflex arc stimulus,sensory receptor in viscera, visceral sensory neuron, integration (progangliionic, dorsal horn, w/in wall of gi tract), efferent pathway (2 neuron chain), visceral effector, response
referred pain? visceral pain afferents travel aong the same pathways as somatic pain fibers, causing referred pain
neurotransmitter released by cholinergic fibers Acetylcholine; by all ans preganglionic axons and all parasympathetic postganglionic axons
neurotransmitter released by adrenergic fibers norepinephrine; by most sympathetic postgangliionic axons, except sweat glands and some blood vessels in skeletal muscles
cholinergic receptors that bind ACh nicotinic, muscarinic
where are nicotinic receptors found? motor end plates of skeletal muscle cells, all ganglionic neurons, hormone producing cells of adrenal medulla
where are muscarinic receptors found? on all parasympathetic target organs, all effector cells stimulated by postganglionic cholinergic fibers
types of adrenergic receptors? alpha and beta; effects of NE depend on which subclass of receptor predominates on the target organ
what is atropine? anticholinergic; blocks muscarinic receptors (used in war). prevents salivation during surgery, dialate pupils
what is neostigmine? inhibits acetylcholinesterase; used to treat myasthenia gravis
effect of OTC drugs? stimulate adrenergic receptors
effect of beta blockers? drugs that attach to B2 receptors to dilate lung bronchioles in asthmatics
why is sympathetic activation long lasting? because NE is inactivated more slowly than ACh, NE and epinephrine are released into the blood and remain until destroyed by liver
what controls ANS functioning? hypothalamus; subconscious cerebral input via limbic lobe connections influences hypothalamic function, cerebral cortex, reticular formation, spinal cord
how does alcohol effect brain? desensitizes neurotransmittor receptors
why does ANS efficiency decline with age? due to structural changes at preganglionic axon terminals
why is orthostatic hypotension present in old age? aging pressure receptors respond less to changes in blood pressure w/changes in body position and because of slowed responses by sympathetic vasoconstrictor centers
Created by: hberglund



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