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midterm exam study g

mrs fontaine's study guide for midterms

anchoring protein a type of protein that attachs cell membranes to one another or to internal or external structures
carrier-mediated to carry throughout
integral proteins structural components of membrane; span the entire width of the membrane one or more times and are therefore known as transmembrane proteins
peripheral proteins attach to the inner or outer surfaces of the membrane and are easily removed
channels transport proteins that forms a passageway that permits the movement of water and small solutes across the cell membrane; have two major types: leak(permit continuous passive movement) and gated(close or open to regulate ion movement)
phospholipid an important membrane lipid whose structure includes both hydrophilic and hydophobic regions
diffusion passive molecular movement from an area of relatively high concentration to an area of relatively low concentration
osmosis the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from one solution toward another solution that contains a higher solute concentration
osmolarity the total concentration of dissolved materials in a solution, regardless of their specific identities, expressed in moles
hypertonic in comparing two solutions, the solution with the higher molarity
endocytosis the movement of relatively large volumes of extracellular material into the cytoplasm vua the formation of membraneous vesicle at the cell surface; includes pinocytosis and phagocytosis
exocytosis the ejection of cytoplasmic materials by the fusion of membraneous vesicle with the cell membrane
hydrophilic freely associating with water; readily entering into solution (HEADS)
hydrophobic incapable of freely associating with water molecules; insoluble (TAILS)
cytosol the fluid in the portion of the cytoplasm
concentration amount (in grams) or number of atoms, ions, or molecules (in moles) per unit volume
glycocalyx a carbohydrate-enriched coating that covers the outside of many eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells, particularly bacteria
potential difference the seperation of opposite charges; requires a barrier that prevents ion migration
vesicular transport transmembrane or membrane associated protein which regulates or facilitates the movement by vesicles of the contents of the cell.
integumentary system functions of this system include protection from environment; structures of this body system include cutaneous membrane (skin), hair, nails, and exocrine glands
muscular system functions of this system include locomotion and heat production; structures of this system include skeletal muscles, tendons, and aponeuroses
endocrine system structures of this system include the pineal gland, pitutitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus, adrenal glands, kidneys, pancreas, and gonads; functions include directing long-term changes
cardiovascular system structures of this system include heart, blood vessels, and blood; functions of this system include the internal transport of materials
respiratory system structures of this system include nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and alveoli;functions include delivery for air and gas exchange
urinary system structures of this system include kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra; functions include elimination of excess water
reproductive system structures of this system include (for males) testes, accessory organs, and external genitalia (for females) ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external gentalia, and mammary glands; functions include production of sex cells
skeletal system structures of this system include bones (206), cartilages, ligaments, and bone marrow; functions include support and protection
nervous system structures of this system include central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS); functions of this system include maintaining homeostasis, responding rapidly, directing very specific responses to stimuli
lymphatic system structures of this system include lymphatic muscles, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus; functions of this system include defense against infection and disease
digestive system structures if this system include salivary glands, pharnyx , esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas; functions of this system include processing of food
Created by: samioliver