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BIOL 1141 Final

lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive systems

QuestionAnswer
Lymphatic System relationship with cardiovascular system system of vessels that circulates body fluids from tissues back into the circulatory system
edema collection/accumulation of body fluids in the tissues, causes swelling, pain, shortness of breath
lymphatic fluid/lymph mostly water; may contain ions, gasses, nutrient molecules, waste products, secretions, proteins, bacteria, viruses, parasites, cancer cells
lymphatic capillaries surround and entwine with blood capillaries; movement of materials is into lymph capillaries; porous, thin-walls lined with endothelium
collecting vessels similar in anatomy to small veins; walls have three layers - 1) simple squamous, 2) smooth muscle, 3) connective tissue; help move lymph through the lymphatic system to the vena cava
trunks and ducts very large lymph vessels. Trunks are found in these regions: lumbar, intestinal, intercostal, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, jugular. Collecting ducts are the largest lymph vessels. Thoracic Duct and Right Lymphatic Duct are two major ones.
thoracic duct Lymph Collecting Duct, located along the midline of the body, empties into the left subclavian
right lymphatic duct Lymph Collecting Duct, located to the right of the vertebral column, empties into the right subclavian
lymph nodes (nodules) about 450, located in groups or chains; filters lymph; composed of reticular connective tissue, lymphocytes and macrophages; plays a role in immune response. Locations: cervical, axillary, mammary, inguinal, abdominal, pelvic, thoracic, popliteal.
flow of lymph blood capillaries -> lymph capillaries -> collecting ducts -> subclavian veins
associated lymphatic organs tonsils, thymus, spleen, aggregated lymphoid nodules in the intestine, appendix
MALT Mucosa Associated Lymphatic Tissue. groups of cells that are not enclosed, not organs; found in the inner lining of many hollow organs. Example - "Peyer's Patches" in the large intestine
lymphatic nodules section of lymph node circular clusters of white blood cells (lymphocytes and macrophages)
appendix attached to the cecum, --------
tonsils lymphatic nodules located in the pharynx
thymus superior to the heart, also an endocrine gland, secretes thymosin, involved in maturation of T-lymphocytes
spleen acts similar to a lymph node, acts as a filter for the blood by removing and recycling old and damaged red blood cells; serves as a blood reservoir, composed primarily of reticular connective tissue
lymphoma cancer of lymphocytes; solid tumors often form in the lymph nodes
lymphatic system's role in defense against infection Lymphocytes carry out specific immune responses; many different types of pathogens (bacteria, viruses, prions, etc.) are removed from the body via the lymphatic system
mechanical barriers skin, mucus, stomach acid, cilia, hair
reticuloendothelial system macrophages. phagocytic cells that "wander" throughout the tissues seeking out general bacteria and viruses; also includes neutrophils and eosinophils from the blood
macrophages phagocytic cells
T-lymphocytes (cell-mediated immunity) found in lymph nodes, carry out cell-mediated immunity by finding and destroying proteins identified by macrophages, plus the cell that the protein is attached to; typically involved wtih immune response to bacteria or protozoan invasions
B-lymphocytes found in lymphatic tissue; produce antibodies that recognize certain proteins and bind to them, deactivating them and causing viral pathogens to "clump" into useless groups of cells; typically involved with viral infections or allergic reactions
humoral immunity B-lymphocytes produce antibodies that bind to viral proteins and render the virus inactive
antibodies very complex proteins that recognize viral proteins, bind to them and inactivate them
functions of the respiratory system respiration/movement of air in and out of the lungs; gas exchange; sound production (singing, speaking); abdominal compression (defecation, lifting, urination); respiratory passages warm, moisten and filter air
upper respiratory tract nose, nostrils, nasal cavity, nasal conchae, sinuses, pharynx, tonsils, larynx
nose where air enters the respiratory system; bones on the bridge, cartilage below the nasal bone; dip between the nose and the upper lip is called the philtrum
nasal cavity inside of the nose; septum divides the nasal cavity into two halves. Surrounded by the following bones: palatine bone, palatine process of the maxilla, nasal bone, ethmoid bone, perpendicular plate, vomer, maxilla, frontal, sphenoid, nasal conchae
sinuses cavities within the cranial bones and nasal bone. Paranasal sinuses are connected to and empty into the nasal cavity; include front, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary sinuses
pharynx throat; connects the nasal and oral cavities to the esophagus; facilitates swallowing; three regions: nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
tonsils contained in the pharynx,
larynx most superior portion of the trachea; thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage and hyoid bone; both true and false vocal cords; glottis prevents air from moving in and out of the trachea
epiglottis flaplike structure that keeps food from entering the trachea during swallowing
vocal cords true vocal cords - white, medial false/vestibular vocal cords - lateral glottis (opening of the vocal cords) controls movement of air through the cords
lower respiratory tract trachea, primary/secondary/tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts
trachea windpipe, composed of 16-20 C-shaped hyaline cartilage rings with a posterior gap to allow for expansion of the esophagus during swallowing; muscularis trachealis - smooth muscle that bridges the gap between cartilage rings
bronchial tree includes right and left primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles and alevolar sacs and ducts
primary bronchi right and left, first branches off the trachea heading to the right and left lungs
secondary bronchi branches off the primary bronchi
tertiary bronchi branches off the secondary bronchi
bronchioles smaller branches of bronchi
alveolar ducts bronchioles open up into alveolar ducts which contain alveoli, or the air space in the lungs
alveoli air space in the lungs, where gas exchange occurs
Type I cells simple squamous epithelium, divides the alveolar ducts into air sacs
Type II cells cells that produce surfactant, a material that reduces hydrogen bonds between water molecules, reduces surface tension and allows alveoli to expand and fill with air
macrophages dust cells; keep alveoli clean
respiratory membrane alveolar capillary membrane; very thin, 2-cell layer. Allows oxygen in and carbon dioxide out. Serves as the boundary between air and blood plasma in the capillaries
lungs respiration organ that contain the smaller bronchi and alveoli
hilus of the lung portion of the lung where the primary bronchi and blood vessels enter
apex of the lung pointy top portion of the lung
base of the lung broad base of the lung above the diaphragm, usually the part of the lung that inflates during inspiration at rest
cardiac notch depression in the left lung that allows space for the heart
5 lobes of the lungs 3 right: right superior, right middle, right inferior 2 left: left superior, left inferior
pleural membranes membranes filled with pleural fluid that allow the lungs to slide and keeps the plural membranes together; assists with lung inflation
diaphragm muscle that contracts to allow the lungs to inflate; moves downward with contraction to allow space for lungs to expand
inspiration inhalation, active
expiration exhalation, passive
respiratory center part of the medulla oblongata and pons that controls breathing
phrenic nerve critical nerve in the cervical plexus that controls the contraction of the diaphragm
functions of the digestive system mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, propulsion, defecation
organs of the digestive system mouth/oral cavity, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
alimentary canal GI tract; long "tube" that goes from the mouth to the anus
mucosa inner lining of digestive organs; contains several different types of epithelium, lamina propria (connective tissue) and muscularis mucosa (smooth muscle)
submucosa deeper lining of digestive organs; mostly connective tissue, many blood vessels
muscularis externa skeletal muscle or smooth muscle layer of the wall of the GI tract. skeletal - oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, anus smooth - lower esophagus, allows for peristalsis in GI tract
adventitia/serosa serosa - visceral peritoneum adventitia - non-peritoneal organs, primarily connective tissue
mesentery extension of visceral peritoneum in between pieces of visceral peritoneum
greater omentum draps over the intestines like a curtain; folds of visceral peritoneum
lesser omentum membrane between the stomach and the liver
segmentation division of the alimentary canal into distinct regions
peristalsis rhythmic contraction that moves food down the esophagus and into the stomach, also helps move chyme through the intestines
mouth/oral cavity allows food to enter the digestive tract, organs of the mouth allow for mechanical digestion of food and beginning of carbohydrate digestion
lips keep food from falling out of the mouth during chewing.
cheeks help keep food between the teeth during chewing
palate roof of the mouth, separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity
uvula cone-shaped dangly thing at the posterior portion of the soft palate; plays a role in speech; closes of the nasopharynx during swallowing
tongue muscle in the mouth that manipulates food for chewing, covered with papillae (taste buds)
frenulum piece of connective tissue that connects the tongue to the base of the mouth
vestibule space between the teeth and the cheeks
teeth allow for mastication (chewing) of food
incisors biting, 2 per side in babies, 2 per side in adults
cuspids ripping, tearing, 1 per side in babies, 1 per side in adults; also called canines or wolfteeth
bicuspids premolars, grinding food; 2 per side in babies, 2 per side in adults
molars grinding food; 3 per side in adults, none in babies
primary/deciduous teeth baby teeth, milk teeth; smaller teeth due to smaller mouth size of infants and children; 20
secondary/permanent teeth teeth that replace baby teeth; 32
crown part of the tooth that protrudes above the gumline
enamel covers the outer surface of the teeth, the hardest substance in the human body
dentin not as strong as enamel, covers the tooth just under the gumline, very easily corroded
pulp cavity contains blood vessels and nerves for each tooth
neck part of the tooth that is in the gum
root part of the tooth in the soft tissue below the gum
cementum helps anchor teeth
periodontal ligament holds each tooth in the alveolus
root canal extension of the pulp cavity
salivary glands exocrine glands that produce saliva,
saliva secretion that helps freshen the mouth, moisten food, help keep bacterial growth in check; composed of water, mucus, amylase and lysozyme
amylase component of saliva, enzyme that begins carbohydrate digestion
lysozyme component of saliva, enzyme that breaks open certain bacterial cells and can destroy them
bolus little ball of chewed food that is coated with mucus and saliva
parotid major salivary gland located in the cheek area; responds to sour taste, infected by the mumps
submandibular major salivary gland located under the mandible
sublingual major salivary gland located under the anterior part of the tongue
pharynx oropharynx and laryngopharynx are part of the digestive system; major role in swallowing and directing food toward the esophagus
esophagus tube that transports food from the pharynx to the stomach; upper portion of the esophagus is skeletal muscle, lower portion is smooth muscle (peristalsis); stratified squamous epithelium that is resistant to friction
esophageal hiatus hole that allows the esophagus to pass through the diaphragm
cardiac sphincter keeps food from exiting the stomach once inside
stomach begins protein digestion, contains enzyme pepsin that breaks down protein molecules into smaller pieces; churns and mixes food (physical digestion), some absorption of medications, etc; simple columnar epithelium that can handle acidic environment
cardiac region of the stomach top portion of the stomach where the esophagus enters
fundus of the stomach bump to the left of the cardiac region, gas can easily get trapped in this area
body of the stomach main part of the stomach
pyloric region end of the stomach just before the stomach attaches to the small intestine
pyloric sphincter controls the release of chyme into the small intestine
rugae inner lining of the stomach, contains many folds in the mucosa and submucosa, increases the surface area for secretion of HCl, pepsin and also for absorption
gastric juice fluid secreted in the stomach
mucus cells secret mucus, a component of gastric juice
parietal cells secrete HCl, a component of gastric juice
chief cells secrete pepsin, a component of gastric juice and enzyme necessary for digestion of proteins
pepsinogen inactive form of pepsin; an enzyme in the stomach activates it when food is present, otherwise it would begin digesting the lining of the stomach
pepsin enzyme necessary to break down protein for digestion
chyme food "paste" that leaves the stomach
small intestine receives chyme from the stomach, neutralizes stomach acid, finishes digestion, absorbs nutrients
duodenum first portion of the small intestine, about 12 finger-widths
jejunum second portion of the small intestin
ileum third portion of the small intestine, connects to the large intestine
ileocecal valve end of the small intestine, sphincter regulates movement of chyme into the large intestine
villi folds in the intestinal wall covered with microvilli that increase the surface area of the small intestine for absorption and secretion
microvilli small projections on each villus that increase surface area, visible as a brush border
brush border microvilli as seen in a microscope
lacteal capillary bed in each villus, allow for absorption of larger molecules such as fats and fat-soluble vitamins
digestive juice secretions of the small intestine - mucus, bicarbonate, some enzymes
large intestine absorbs water from chyme that passes from the small intestine, formation of feces
cecum blind pouch where the ileum connects to the ascending colon; considered the beginning of the large intestine
vermiform appendix blind pouch projection of the cecum, has no specific function but may play a role in immunity and maintenance of gut flora
ascending colon portion of the large intestine that travels upward along the right side of the body
transverse colon portion of the large intestine that travels across the top of the abdominal cavity
descending colon portion of the large intestine that runs down the left side of the body, toward the rectum and anus
sigmoid colon S-shaped section of colon between the descending colon and the rectum
rectum final straight portion of the large intestine, acts as a temporary storage site for feces
anal canal very last portion of the large intestine between the rectum and the anus
anus opening where feces can be expelled from the body; has both skeletal muscle (voluntary) and smooth muscle (involuntary) that control the exit of feces
taeniae coli 2 bands of smooth muscle along the large intestine that contract and cause the large intestine to "pucker"
haustrae pouches of the large intestine formed by contraction of taeniae coli; slows down the movement of food for absorption and feces formation
mass movement happens 2-3x per day, typically after a meal, significant peristalsis that moves chyme toward the rectum and often results in the urge to defecate
feces mucus, bacteria, undigested materials, some liver waste product, very little water if digestion is working properly
pancreas retroperitoneal, has both exocrine and endocrine functions; pancreatic duct enters the small intestines; pancrease secretes digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, also secretes insulin, a hormone that is critical for maintaining blood sugar
exocrine functions of the pancreas secretion of digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, which neutralizes stomach acid
endocrine functions of the pancreas secretion of insulin, which reduces blood sugar and signals the body to transport glucose into cells
pancreatic juice secretions of the pancreas
insulin hormone that is essential for regulation of blood sugar
liver secretes bile, makes plasma proteins, acts as a filter during digestion, receives nutrient rich blood from the stomach and intestines, filters toxins
four lobes of the liver right (largest), left (smaller), quadrate and caudate (on the underside)
lobules of the liver units of lobes of liver, each has a central vein
central vein vein that runs through the center of each liver lobule
hepatocytes liver cells
sinusoids capillaries between hepatocytes that get both hepatic artery blood and hepatic portal vein blood
bile contains cholesterol and bile salts, used to help with fat digestion, also contains waste products (toxins) in the form of bilirubin (yellowish substance)
hepatic portal system the hepatic portal vein brings blood from the digestive system to the capillary bed before the liver, the hepatic vein from the liver takes blood through a sinusoid capillary bed, then it goes to the inferior vena cava
portal triad hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, bile duct found between each lobule of the liver
hepatic portal vein brings blood from the digestive tract to a capillary bed before the liver
hepatic artery brings blood from the capillary bed to the liver??
bile/hepatic duct collects bile from hepatocytes and takes it out of the liver
bile duct system, including cystic duct right and left hepatic ducts bring bile out of the liver, they merge to form the common hepatic duct. The cystic duct from the gallbladder merges with this to form the common bile duct
gallbladder stores bile and concentrates it until it is needed
functions of the urinary system excretion of liquid waste - excess water, salt, waste products (particularly urea, a nitrogen-based waste that is toxic), medications
kidney filtration organ, located in the abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal
hilus of the kidney where the vessels and uerters enter the kidney
capsule of the kidney tough fibrous layer that surrounds the kidney and provides some protection
cortex darker, outer region of the kidney
medulla paler, inner region of the kidney
medullary pyramids part of the medulla that opens up into tubules that contain urine
renal papillae pointy end/tip of the medullary pyramids
pelvis wide portion of the ureter where it enters the kidney, where urine collects
minor and major calyces urine passes through these two portions of the kidney before moving to the renal pelvis
uriniferous tubule functional unit of the kidney, urine-forming tubule
nephron filtration unit of the kidney; removes excess and waste products, cleans the blood; 1,000,000 per kidney
collecting duct large tube, collects urine from several nephrons
renal corpuscle glomerulus, Bowman's space, Bowman's capsule
renal tubule proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule
glomerulus capillary bed that is the first step in the filtration process
Bowman's capsule surrounds the glomerulus and forms the renal corpuscle
proximal convoluted tubule portion of the nephron just after the renal corpuscle, leads to loop of Henle
loop of Henle between proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule
distal proximal tubule between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct
filtration removal of waste products from the blood
absorption recycling of needed products
secretion
urine liquid waste
"portal" blood flow artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, second capillary bed (peritubular or vasa recta), venule, veins, renal vein
affertent arteriole brings blood from the renal artery to the glomerulus
glomerulus capillary bed that begins filtration process
efferent arteriole brings blood from the glomerulus to a second capillary bed
peritubular capillary capillary bed that is around convoluted tubules
vasa recta capillary capillary bed that is around the loop of Henle
ureters bring urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
urinary bladder stores urine
detrusor muscle controls the release of urine from the urinary bladder
trigone reinforced area between the two ureters and the urethra that does not expand as much as the rest of the bladder
sphincters control the emptying of the bladder - internal urethral sphincter (smooth muscle), external urethral sphincter (skeletal muscle)
urethra (in male and female) leaves the bladder and allows urine to exit the body
urethral orifice hole at which urine exits the body
functions of the reproductive system produce and maintain sex cells (gametes), produce and secrete sex hormones, transport sperm and supporting body fluids to femail reproductive tract, transport eggs to fallopian tubes, provide environment for development, move offspring out of body
gonads primary sex organs; produce sex cells and sex hormones, early development and sex determination, determination of sex characteristics, development of secondary sex organs testes - male ovaries - female
ovaries female sex organs, produce egg cells
testes male sex organs, produce sperm cells
gametes sex cells egg/ovum/oocyte - female sperm/spermatozoa - male
egg female sex cell
sperm male sex cell
sex hormones females - estrogen and progesterone males - testosterone
estrogen/progesterone female sex hormone
testosterone male sex hormone
secondary sex organs males - scrotum, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland, penis female - uterine/fallopian tubes/oviducts, uterus (and cervix), vagina, labia minora and majora, clitoris, mammary glands/breast
scrotum contains the testes and holds them away from the body; sperm requires cooler than body temperature
epididymis stores sperm
vas deferens transports sperm from the epididymis for ejaculation
seminal vesicle located posterior to the prostate, secretes fluid that becomes semen
prostate gland secretes fluid that is part of semen
bulbourethral gland located at the base of the penis, secrete fluid that lubricates the urethra so sperm can pass through during ejaculation
penis organ that allows urine and sperm to exit the body
uterine tubes eggs released from the ovaries are fertilized in the fallopian tubes before passing to the uterus; three regions - infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus
uterus womb; provides a place for an fertilized egg to implant and develop
vagina canal from which a fully developed fetus can exit the body
labia majora and minora outer portion of the vagina - labia major are outer lips, labia minora are inner lips
clitoris located anterior to the urethra, sexual organ
breast contains lactiferous ducts, produces milk that will nourish human infant
early development of male and female reproductive structures happens during weeks 7-8 for males, weeks 8-9 for females; fetus is undifferentiated until this point; sex organs form and determine formation of secondary sex organs
functions of the endocrine system helps regulate body functions and coordination of body activities - chemical reactions (metabolism), transport across membranes (such as insulin), regulation of water and ion balances, reproduction, development and growth, homeostasis
cooperation of the endocrine system with the nervous system moves slower, more prolonged effects, more generally distributed effects, ultimately controlled by the NS (hypothalamus), some endocrine glands can be stimulated by neurons, brain produces some hormones, some hormones act on the brain
hormones signal molecules that allow parts of the body to communicate, transmit information via body fluids (usually blood), no ducts to body surfaces (endocrine, not exocrine)
major endocrine structures hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, pancreas, pineal body, thymus gland, ovaries and testes, kidneys, digestive tract, heart, adipose tissue
hypothalamus brain, part of the diencephalon
pituitary gland "master gland" secretes hormones that act on other glands
thyroid gland located in the neck, anterior to the trachea
parathyroid glands smaller protrusions of the thyroid gland
adrenal glands located on superior portion of the kidneys
pancreas retroperitoneal, located in the abdomen, both exocrine and endocrine functions
pineal gland small endocrine gland that produces seratonin
thymus superior to the heart
ovary female sex organ
testis male sex organ
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Created by: pinklrt98