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Anatomy Ch. 8

Functions of the Nervous System

The nervous system communicates external and internal stimuli using electrical impulses called ______________________. action potentials
the nervous system takes stimuli from the __________________and converts it into useful information needed for appropriate body responses. environment
the nervous system is an arrangement of cells, tissues, and organs that regulates the body's responses to _________________ and _________________ stimuli external, internal
the nervous system cells are ________________, neurons and ______________________ neuroglia, neural crest cells
_____________________are the most common cell in the nervous system. they assist, protect, and support ________________ neuroglia, neurons
_________________are excitable cells that rapidly communicate information about the body and the environment. neurons
_________________are composed of dendrites, a nerve cell body, axon hillock, axon, and terminus. neurons
the ____________________separates neurons from the cells with which they communicate synaptic cleft
_______________________may be involved in nervous system maintenance and healing neural crest cells
neurons communicate to other cells with ___________________ neurotransmitters
neurotransmitters can be __________________ (stimulate a neuron) or ________________ (hinder a neuron) excitatory, inhibitory
a neuron must be _________________past its threshold before propagating an action potential excited
the _____________________goes through four stages: depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, and recovery action potential
the action potential travels in the following order: dendrites -> ___________________ -> axon -> ______________ nerve cell body, terminus
neurons can be linked in _________________, axosomatic, or axoaxonic synapse arrangements axodendritic
an excitatory postsynaptic potential is a neuron arrangement in which one neuron excites another _________________ neuron
an inhibitory postsynaptic potential is a neuron arrangement in which one neuron _____________ another neuron inhibits
reverberating pathways recycle the excitation of a pathway unit an ________________stimulous shuts it down inhibatory
reflexes are _________________ responses associated with survival involuntary
reflexes start with the stimulation of an _________________ affector
the flow of information in a ___________ is as follows: affector -> sensory neuron -> interneuron -> motor neuron -> effector reflex
________________can transmit information about the reflex to the brain and other body regions interneurons
________________capable of invading or infecting nervous system cells cause infectious pathology microorganisms
_________________ diseases are due to the progressive deterioration of a cell or a tissue over time degenerative
________________pathologies are caused by embryological and maturation errors that affect nerve cell communication. development, and growth. congenital
________________injuries result from a wound caused by an external force or violence traumatic
________________diseases are aused by poisons that affect cell metabolism or communication toxicological
much of nervous system aging is due to reduced _____________ and ____________ function neuroglia, neuron
______________cannot be replaced when damaged or lost neurons
people carry most of their original neuroglia and neurons from ________________ childhood
neurons accumulate damage from oxidization carried out by ________________ metabolism
______________aging can be hastened by alcohol use, drug use, pollution and smoking neuron
neurons naturally age by accumulating __________ and forming ______________ plaques, tangles
___________that maintain the chemical environment of neurons. astrocytes
____________cells which secret cerebrospinal fluid ependymal
____________that fight off infections in the nervous system microglia
_____________what help from myelin in the brain and spinal cord oligodendrites
______________which assist with the develpoment of the nervous system redia glia
______________that maintain the chemical environment of neurons in the brain and spinal cord satellite cells
______________which form myelin on neurons outside of the brain and spinal cord schwann cells
______________ wraps around the axons of neurons to speed up the transimission of the neurons communication myelin
_________________are potential stem cells for repairing nerve damage in adults neural crest cells
__________________are important in positive feedback and are associated with learning and memory reverberating pathways
the components of a _________________are the affector, interneuron, and effector reflex arc
______________are responsible for sending signals from affectors to the effector and to the brain interneurons
_____________help maintain nerve cell health cytokines
Created by: Lauren G.