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Anatomy Ch. 6

The Muscular System

muscle cells or fibers have the capabilities of being _________________ and _______________ contractile and excitable
by being contractile, muscle cells can be used to provide various types of ________________ for the body movement
strong striated muscle contractions generate _________________ system movement and pump ____________throughtout the body skeletal, blood
non-striated muscle contractions assist with ___________________, _________________ and digestion blood flow, breathing
the excitable nature of muscle cells permits them to be controlled _________________ and ______________________by the body voluntary and involuntary
________________control is mostly involved in skeletal system movements voluntary
________________control moves blood throughout the body and passes food through the digestive system involuntary
_____________muscle is the most common muscle type making up over half of the body's weight. skeletal
immobility and malnutrition as a person matures could cause muscle ______________ atrophy
a variety of ________________diseases can also cause the loss of muscle function genetic
muscle tissue is composed of ________________ cells contractile
contractile cells have specialized cell membranes and ______________________ cytoskeletons
muscle cells consume a large about of the body's _______________ energy
_______________________is an indicator of the body's muscle composition body mass index (BMI)
all muscle cells originate from _______________ in the embryo myoblasts
muscle cells can be categorized by appearance as ___________________ or _________________ nonstriated or striated
muscle cells can be categorized according to their location and function inthe body: ____________, _____________ and ____________ cardiac, smooth and skeletal
muscle cells are covered with an excitable membrane called a _____________________ sarcolemma
the cytoskeleton of muscle cells is modified into contractile protein units called ____________________ sarcomeres
a muscle contraction occurs in three stages: ____________, _____________ and ___________ neural stimulation, muscle cell contraction, muscle cell relaxation
muscles can be categorized by the pattern of muscle cell organization: _____________ and _______________ parallel and pinnate
skeletal muscles are organs containing _________________, _________________, and ______________ blood vessels, connective tissues, and nerves
skeletal muscles are composed of _____________, or ______________ of muscle cells bundles or fascicles
__________________work independently to control the endurance and strength of a muscle contraction fascicles
muscles can _________________(antagonistic) or ________________ (synergistic) other muscles counteract, assist
muscle contractions can be categorized as ______________ or _______________ isotonic or isometric
overuse of muscles can cause ______________, ___________________, and _________________ strains, stiffness, and sprains
muscle damage will produce muscle pathology, such as contusions, ______________, _________________, and _________________ cramps, paralysis, and sensitivity
some muscle diseases are _______________ or ________________. this includes a large group of muscle diseases called _______________ genetic, developmental, myopathies
maturity is usually accompanied by ____________, or _____________________ cachexia, or gradual muscle loss
some aging of the musculature system is due to _______________and _______________ wear and tear
________________can affect muscle aging diets
changes in ________________production contribute to muscle aging hormone
a_____________ cell is capable changing its shape to produce body movement contractile
muscle cells need sample _____________, ______________, and ______________ to operate properly glucose, oxygen, electrolytes
body mass index is a measure of the proportion of _________________making up a person's body in relation to their body fat, height, and weight muscle
________________muscle has a randomly organized cytoskeleton that produces weak contractions nonstriated
________________muscles have a cytoskeleton organized in a way that provides powerful contractions striated
_____________muscles are involuntary and striated cardiac
_____________muscles are involuntary and nonstriated smooth
_____________muscles are involuntary and striated skeletal
_____________muscles are controlled by motor nerves skeletal
skeletal muscle myofilaments are composed of _____________, tropomyosin, and troponin in the thin filament, ______________in the thick filament, and titan that runs vertically and supports the other filaments actin, myosin
______________is essential for muscle contraction because it permits the binding of the thick and thin filaments. a contraction cannot be held in place without _____________. calcium, calcium
the levels of muscle structure are a group of fascicles surrounded by _________________. each fascicle is surrounded by an _________________. a fascicle is composed of clumps of muscle fibers or muscle cells individually surrounded by an _______________ perimysium, epimysium, endomysium
________________muscels pul against each other coordinate movement or pull apart the opposing muscles. antagonistic
______________muscles work together to produce a combined movement. synergist
all muscle cells develop from ____________ myoblasts
_____________muscle is responsible for peristalsis smooth
_____________ion stimulates the binding of actin to myosin calcium
muscles carrying out anaerobic metabolism produce the following waste product: _____________ lactic acid
the contractile unit of a muscle cell is called a ________________, which is composed of an ovelapping pattern of thick and thin _____________ sarcomere, myofilaments
striations are produced by the uniform arragnement of: _____________ sarcomeres
what percent of the body's mass is composed of muscle tissue? ________ 50%
the muscle cell contraction phase begins when the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases _______________, which binds to the protein _______________ on the thin myofilaments calcium, troponin
Created by: Lauren G.



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