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Anatomy ch. 3*

Organization of the Body

_________________make up the lowest level of the body hierarchy molecules
______________compose tissues, tissues form _______________, _______________are combined into organ systems, and the organ systems make up the human ____________________ cells, organs, organs, organism
organisms interact with other organisms (______________) and with the environment (_________________) society, envirome
the human physiological environment is _______________ aqueous
water is a ______________for most biological molecules or solutes. solvent
____________are charged particles that dissovle in water ions
____________carry a negative charge and ______________carry a positive charge. anions, cations
______________are proteins that carry out chemical reactions for the body enzymes
exergonic chemical reactions _____________ energy give off
endergonic chemical reactions ____________ energy absorb
energy can be ____________, _____________, ______________ and ________________ chemical, electrical, mechanical or thermal
forms of molecular transport are ___________________, ___________________, and _______________________ passive transport, active transport, and bulk mechanical transport
___________________moves large materials into a cell, while ___________________moves large materials out of the cell endocytosis, exocytosis
_________________is the diffusion of water osmosis
cell theory or cell doctrine explains that all life has a ______________________ cell structure
all cells have three components: ________________, ________________, and _________________ cell membrane, cytoplasm, and genome
bacteria are _____________________cells which have no organelles or nucleus. prokaryotic
human cells are ___________________ meaning they have organelles and contain the genome in a nucleus eukaryotic
cell function is carried out by _______________ metabolism
_____________is a molecule that transfers energy from repiration to the cell ATP
aerobic respiration uses _________________ to break down glucose for energy oxygen
aerobic respiration is composed of three states: _____________________, ____________________, and the ___________________________ glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain
anaerobic respiration is carried out by muscles as ____________________ fermentation
a gene is the genetic informationprogramming or ___________sequence for a characteristic DNA
______________________involves transcription and translation Gene expression
the ________________describes what a cell is doing at a particular time during its differentiation or division stages. cell cycle
some cells are ___________________and carry out no function dormant
Asexual reproduction uses ______________to make two similar diploid cells from one cell. mitosis
_________________cells in humans are diploid somatic
sexual reproduction uses ________________to make four haploid cells carrying one of the set of homologous chromosomes. meiosis
_________________cells in humans are gametes haploid
_______________are made up of similar cells carrying out a specific function tissues
the human body is composed of four tissue types: ____________________, ______________, _________________, _____________________ epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nerve tissue
___________________forms coverings, linings, or glands epithelium
___________________tissue is composed of cells surrounded by a secreted matrix connective
___________________is a contractile tissue. muscle
there are three types of muscle tissue: _______________, ___________________, _________________ smooth, cardiac, skeletal
nerve tissue comprises ________________ and ___________________ neurons and neuroglia
the _____________________of humans are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, endocrine, nervous, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive system. organ systems
cell pathology causes ___________________ dysfunctions of the body hierarchy
cell aging is due to an accumulation of ____________________ molecular decay
mutations cause _____________ damage during the _______ stage of interphase DNA, S
some aging is due to ________________________ telomere shortening
the cell of a ______________organism tends to carry out all of the organism's functions and makes up its full structure unicellular
the cell of a _________________communicate and share the tasks of keeping the organism alive multicellular
_______________describes how the human body interacts and adapts to the environment in order to survive environomics
_______________are one of several substances known to conduct electricity and heat. metals
_________________are proteins that carry out chemical reactions needed for homeostasis enzymes
__________transport does not require energy but does need a diffusion gradient passive
___________transport needs cell energy but can work against a diffusion gradient active
______________is the active trasport of large particles or molecules into the cell endocytosis
______________is the active transport of large particles or molecules out of the cell exocytosis
a _____________is any simple organism that must be seen with a microscope microbe
___________are primitive single celled microbes bacteria
___________are complex microbes that can be single celled or multicellular fungi
the _________________is involved in modifying, storing, and shipping certain cell products from teh endoplasmic reticulum golgi body
____________are short and found in large collections on the cell surface cilia
_______________are long whip-like structures usually found alone flagella
_______________provide cells with much of the energy needed for survival mitochondria
___________respiration produces an abundance of cell energy in the presence of oxygen aerobic
___________respiration produces some cell energy in the absence of oxygen anaerobic
the _______________is able to extract cell energy from amino acids and lipids taken in the diet. Krebs cycle
_________________refers to the cells ability to build amino acids into proteins using DNA information Gene expression
_________________involves the reading of the DNA followed by teh synthesis of an edited mRNA transcription
_________________involves the reading of the mRNA by a ribosome that builds the protein from the amino acids carried by tRNA translation
______________control the occurence of cell division mitogens
sexual cell dicision is called meiosis. it occurs in two nuclear divisions: the first separates___________________chromosomes, and the second separates _________________ homologous, chromatids
________________is a decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, or organ, while the enlargement of these body components is known as __________________ atrophy, hypertrophy
________________is the stage of karyokinesis during which chromosomes separate anaphase
________________is a connective-tissue type blood
________________is a standard unit of heat calorie
________________is a copy of a chromosome chromatid
________________is the sum of all chemical reactions in the body metabolism
_________________is localized tissue death necrosis
food is a form of _________________energy, which provides the ability for muscle movement, which is a form of _____________ energy potential/ kinetic
the region of an enzyme that is the point of its attachment to another molecule is called the __________________ active site
Created by: Lauren G.