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Anatomy Ch.2**

The Body's Chemical Makeup

QuestionAnswer
________________and ________________work together to build and run the human body matter and energy
elements are the raw materials of the body, but they do not work in _________________ isolation
________________is constantly needed to ensure that the molecules can carry out their roles energy
humans are primarily composed of organic molecules called ____________________ biochemicals
atoms with a particular proton number are called ___________________ elements
elements that vary in neutron number are called ________________ isotopes
___________are elements that have more or fewer electrons than protons and carry an electric charge ions
elements can form ____________, ______________, and _______________bonds ionic, covalent, and hydrogen
an _________________is a molecule that has the same elemental makeup, but a different elemental arrangement. isomer
organisms are primarily composed of organic molecules called ______________ biochemicals
________________are classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides carbohydrates
elements are bonded together to form a wide array of ________________ and ______________ molecules. structual and functional
the four categories of human biochemicals are _____________, ______________, ______________ and _________________ carbohydrates, lipids, peptides and nucleic acids.
all ____________________are composed of energy and matter organisms
all matter is composed of ____________ atoms
atoms have a central core called the nucleus, which is composed of ________________and _______________that determine the atomic mass protons and neutrons
the proton number or atomic number determines the properties of an ____________ atom
atoms with a particular proton number are called ___________________ elements
elements that vary in neutron number are called ________________ isotopes
___________are elements that have more or fewer electrons than protons and carry an electric charge ions
elements can form ____________, ______________, and _______________bonds ionic, covalent, and hydrogen
an _________________is a molecule that has the same elemental makeup, but a different elemental arrangement. isomer
organisms are primarily composed of organic molecules called ______________ biochemicals
all biochemicals are composed of a _______________ and a _________________ carbon skeleton, functional group
pH is a measure of the ____________________ concentration in a solution hydrogen ion
______________solutions have a high hydrogen ion concentration acid
____________or _______________solutions have a low hydrogen ion concentration base, alkaline
pH numbers ____ through ____ are acids, _____ is neutral, and bases are pH ____ through ____ 1, 6, 7, 8, 14
________________are used in the body to prevent pH fluctuations buffers
_______________are classified as glycerides, sterols, and an assorted group containing vitamins lipids
fatty acids can be _______________or _________________ saturated or unsaturated
________________are classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides carbohydrates
glucose, fructose, galactose, and mannose are common _______________________ monosaccharides
sucrose, lactose, maltose, and cellobiose are common __________________ disaccharides
_________________usually have structual or storage roles in organisms. polysaccharides
glycogen, startch, cellulose, and mucopolysaccharides are common _______________ polysaccharides
biochemicals must be eaten in the right amounts to maintain _________________ homeostasis
___________________is the ability to maintain body function and structure homeostasis
_________________means the body is not getting the proper proportion of biochemicals malnutrition
___________________means that body is not getting all the biochemicals it needs to maintain homeostasis undernutrition
_____________________is due to destruction of essential biochemicals molecular aging
molecular aging is also called ____________ senescence
other factors, such as _____________ and _____________________, cause molecular decay oxidation and ultraviolet light
___________________are chemicals that prevent or slow molecule decay due to oxidation antioxidants
_______________is the study of matter or the composition of substances chemistry
______________is the ability to do work energy
______________is the basic unit of all substances that has mass and occupies space matter
_____________chemistry is the study of molecules with a carbon structure organic
______________studies the organic chemicals making up living organisms biochemistry
the two major components of an atom are the ________________ and _________________ atomic nucleus, atomic orbitals
a ______________is the smallest unit of a substance made up of two or more atoms and that retains the characteristics of that substance molecule
____________bonds involve the sharing of atomic orbitals covalent
____________bonds represent a weak electrical attraction usually between hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a molecule hydrogen
_____________bonds are electrical attractions between two or more oppositely charged ions ionic
a _________________is a molecule made up of different types of atoms compound
A ________________is composed of two or more of the same type of atom pure molecule
______________molecules provide chemical reactions for a body bioactive
______________molecules are used for building body components structural
______________help molecules dissolve in water hydroxyl
______________are involved in the transfer of electrons carbonyl
______________are involved in the transfer of electrons and exchange of hydrogen ions carboxyl
______________are involved in the transfer of electrons and exchange of hydrogen ions amino
______________are involved in the capture of energy and release of energy phosphate
_______________are involved in creating the structure of molecules sulfhydryl
________________molecules are a mirror image shape of molecules and they can interfere with the functioning of the chiral form used by organisms chiral
a hydrogen ion ______________attracts hydrogen ions making a solution less acidic or more basic acceptor
a hydrogen ion _____________releases hydrogen ions making a solution more acidic or less basic donor
____________refers to charged particles capable of dissolving in water polar
_____________molecules are typically not charged and do not dissolve in water nonpolar
a ________________is a single unit of a molecule monomer
a ________________is composed of groups of monomers attached to each other by covalent bonds polymer
________________molecules are repelled by water and ten to dissolve in lipids hydrophobic
________________molecules dissolve in water and tend not to mix with lipids hydrophilic
_____________primarily are bioactive molecules such as sex hormones sterols
the _______________are a group of lipids that compose the bioactive molecules called vitamins terpenoids
_____________ and _____________are types of carbohydrates used as a source of energy for the body monosaccharides, disaccharides
_____________ type of monosaccharide, a major source of cell energy glucose
_____________type of monosaccharide, a source of energy found in milk galactose
_____________type of monosaccharide, a sugar that can be used for energy but plans an important role in fighting infections mannose
a ___________________is the monomer unit of a peptide amino acid
a typical _________________is composed of a pentose sugar attached to a nitrogen base and phosphate functional group nucleotide
_________________store and transfer genetic information as well as are involved in the transfer of cell energy nucleic acids
two or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds form a ___________________ molecule
small chains of amino acids form _____________, and larger chains form ____________ peptides, proteins
_____________cannot be chemically broken down element
_____________3-D dtructure of a protein tertiary
_____________primary fat stored in the human body triglyceride
Created by: Lauren G.