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Reproductive System

Anatomy - The reproductive System

The main job of the ______________________ is to ensure that continuation of the human species. reproductive system
Humans, like all sexually reproducing organisms, contain specialized organs called __________ that aid in sexual reproduction. gonads
Sexual reproductive organ Gonad
The gonad starts to develop in the embryo at ______ weeks and takes on its earliest functions at _____ weeks 4.5, 11.5
At first the gonad is a mass of cells derived from the same _______ that forms the kidneys mesoderm
Unique to the gonad are mobile cells called _____________________ specialized germ cells (SCGs)
______________________– A cell in the gonad involved in sexual reproduction Specialized Germ Cell (SGC)
At ___ weeks, the SGCs develop the ability to undergo meiosis after that point of development; the gonad becomes an ___________ or a ________. 7, ovary,testis
________________– Developmental differences that distinguish the two genders Sexual Dimorphism
_____________________– Anatomical features that distinguish males from females Secondary Sex Characteristics
- Secondary sex characteristics become evident after ____ weeks of embryological development. 14
______________– The stage of development when sexual reproduction becomes possible Puberty
- Integrated into the reproductive systems of females and males is the ________ from the urinary system. urethra
The female reproductive system is divided into the _______________ and the ________________. reproductive tract,mammary glands
_____________ – Connected muscular tubes that are involved in female reproduction Reproductive Tract
_______________ – Sex organs on the outside of the body External Genitalia
_______________ – A tube that extends from the uterus and ends proximal to the ovary Fallopian Tube
_____________ – A pear-shaped organ that nourishes the growing embryo Uterus
___________ – A muscular canal running from the uterus to the exterior of the body Vagina
the reproductive tract is composed of the ________________, fallopian tubes, _____________, and vagina ovaries,uterus
________________ are paired accessory organs of the female reproductive system Mammary glands
_______________ are paired, oval-shaped organs responsible for egg formation and sex-hormone production. Ovaries
_________________ – A strip of connective tissue that attaches the ovary to the uterus Ovarian Ligament
Ovaries are composed of an outer _____________ and an inner _____________ layer cortex,medulla
The cortex is composed of a cellular connective tissue where the ____________ are located eggs
____________– A term for the female sex cell, or egg Ovum
• A loose connective tissue that contains numerous blood vessels and nerves makes up the _____________. medulla
The _______________ of the ovary does not produce eggs. Rather, it stores immature eggs in fluid-filled sacs called ovarian follicles. cortex
____________________ – A fluid-filled sac in which an egg matures Ovarian Follicle
• Ovarian follicles consist of an immature egg, or ______________, which is surrounded by special follicle cells. oocyte
An _______________ is a cell that has not yet undergone a complete meiosis Oocyte
- Many scientists believe that the ovary contains about ______ million oocytes by month ______ of embryological development. 7,6
Approximately _____K to ____K oocytes are present by puberty 40, 60
About _______ oocytes mature within a lifetime 400
____________________ – A nearly mature egg or ovum Graafian follicle
The ovum ruptures out of the Graafian follicle during ________________ ovulation
After release from the follicle, the egg enters the ___________________ fallopian tube
• Follicles are also responsible for producing ______________ and secreting it into the blood stream estrogen
The enzyme _______________ converts hormones called androgens into estrogen aromatase
____________ – A hormone that maintains body structure and provides male sex characteristics Androgen
Androgens are secreted by the ovaries and ___________________ adrenal glands
Large levels of _______________ cause the male sex characteristics to develop androgens
A structure called the ___________________ makes progesterone corpus luteum
________________– A structure formed in the follicle after the egg is released at ovulation Corpus Luteum
_________________ – An enzyme that helps to convert cholesterol into progesterone Desmolase
_________________ – A condition in which it is not clear at birth whether the individual is a male or female Intersex
_________________ – Another name for fallopian tube Oviduct
One fallopian tube leads to each ovary on the respective side; however, they do not make contact with the ___________. ovary
___________________ – The fusion of sperm and egg Feritilization
_________________ – Finger-like projections at the end of the fallopian tube Fimbriae
_______________ contain a high density of ciliated cells whose wave-like movements sweep the ovulated egg into the opening of the fallopian tubes Fimbriae
______________ – The middle muscular layer of the fallopian tube Myosalpinx
• Muscular contractions of the myosalpinx move the egg through the fallopian tube to the _____________ uterus
_________________ – Two sheets of epithelium attached to the fallopian tube and uterus Broad Ligaments
The ______________, or womb is a hollow muscular organ where the embryo and fetus develop uterus
_____________ – Another name for the uterus Womb
The outerlayer of the womb _____________, is a connective tissue covering that attaches laterally to the broad ligament perimetrium
The middle muscular layer of the womb is the _____________, is very thick and is innervated by autonomic nerves. myometrium
Muscles of the myometrium contract in response to the hormone ______________ oxytocin
___________ – The thick mucous membrane lining of the inner surface of the uterus Endometrium
_______________ layer is rich in blood vessels and varies in thickness with the menstrual period Endometrium
___________________ – The cyclic shedding of the endometrium Menstrual Period
The uterus is divided into ___________ regions three
Connected to the fallopian tubes is the upper region of the uterus called the ____________ uterine fundus
The ___________ has a thicker endometrium and myometrium than the rest of the uterus fundus
________________ – The lower third of the uterus Lower Uterine Segment
________________ – The lowermost part of the uterus, which opens into the vagina Cervix
The _____________ has a rich supply of blood vessels and an abundance of lymphatic vessels cervix
The ___________ is a muscular passage that connects the uterus to the external genitalia. vagina
_______________ – Mucus producing glands at the base of the female urethra Skene’s Glands
______________ – A diamond-shaped region making up the base of the pelvic region Perineum
______________– The external female genitalia Vulva
______________– A pad of fat tissue that covers the pubic bone in females Mons
The mons is rich in ______________ associated with sexual sensitivity nerves
_______________ – Outer lips of the vulva Libia Mojora
_______________ – Inner lips of the vulva Labia Minora
The _______________ are pads of fat tissue that wrap around the vulva from the mons to the perineum. labia majora
labia majora are covered with pubic hair after puberty, and have many _____________ and _______________ glands sweat,sebaceous
______________ – A small piece of erectile tissue within the labia minor Clitoris
The _________________ is a small piece of highly innervated erectile tissue involved in the sexual response. clitoris
______________ – A tissue capable of filling with blood and swelling Erectile Tissue
Covering the clitoris is a thin strip of labia minora called the ______________ clitoral hood
____________– A thin membrane partially covering the opening of the vaginal at birth Hymen
Each mammary gland is divided into ______ to ______ lobes composed of loose connective tissue and glands. 15, 20
The _____________ glands within the lobes secrete milk into lactiferous ducts exocrine
___________________ – Ducts of the mammary glands that carry milk to the nipples Lactiferous Ducts
_______________ – A small raised area in the center of each mammary gland Nipple
Around each nipple is a circular area of pigmented skin called the _____________ areola
_________________ – The formation of milk by the mammary glands Lactation
Human milk has higher ______________ and lower ________________ content than other animal milk carbohydrate,protein
Cow milk is _____________ in the amino acids needed for human CNS development lower
____________________ – A network of tubes and glands that assist with the survival and transport of sperm Seminal Vessels
___________________ – An external part of the urinary and reproductive systems of the male Penis or Phallus
______________ – A pouch of skin that encloses the testes Scrotum
Testes start out in the same location as the ovaries during fetal development, which is near the _____________. kidneys
___________________ – A condition in which one or both testes do not pass into the scrotum Undescended Testis or Cryptorchidism
It is believed that testes require ____________ temperatures of the scrotum in order to produce viable sperm. cooler
Muscle contractions of the ____________ muscle then regulate the testes’ temperature by adjusting the distance of the testes to the body cremaster
The testes become _____________ when placed closer to the body and _____________when moved away. warmer,cooler
___________________ – Tubes in the testes where sperm is produced Seminiferous Tubules
________________ – Cells that produce testosterone in the testis Leydig’s Cells
________________ – A tube where sperm are collected and stored after leaving the testis Epididymis
_____________________ – A thin tube that transports sperm from the testis to the urethra Vas Deferens or Ductus Deferens
The vas deferens is a curved tube that runs up along the bladder and past glands called the _________________ seminal vesicles
_____________________– Glands that help produce semen Seminal Vesicles
Seminal vesicles are paired glands located posterior to the ___________________ urinary bladder
_____________ – A fluid containing sperm and seminal secretions Semen
____________________ – A duct that opens into the urethra Ejaculatory Duct
________________ – A gland in the male that surrounds the base of the urethra Prostate Gland
_______________ – A pair of glands the lie beneath the prostate gland Cowper’s or Bulbourethral Glands
Sperm are disabled or killed by _____________conditions. acidic
The _____________ is a tube of erectile tissue that serves as a passageway for semen and urine penis
___________ – A sheath of erectile tissue in the penis that encloses the urethra Corpus Spongiosum
_______________ – The swollen portion at the tip of the penis Glans
_____________________ – A roll of skin that covers the glans of the penis Prepuce or Foreskin
_________________ – Surgical removal of the prepuce Circumcision
______________________ – A large cylinder of erectile tissue in the penis Corpus Cavernosum
________________ – A large vein that runs along the dorsal length of the penis Dorsal Vein
_________________ – Enlargement and hardening of the penis during sexual excitement Erection
_______________ – The sequence of events that lead to ovulation Ovarian Cycle
The female sexual cycle, or menstrual cycle, is a series of events that prepare the body for pregnancy, this cycle is sometimes divided into the _______________________ ovarian and uterine cycles
Events that prepare the uterus for pregnancy make up the _______________ cycle uterine
The ______________ cycle prepares one egg for pregnancy by maturing the egg and passing it out of the ovary. ovarian
______________________ – The ovarian cycle of events that take place before ovulation Preovulation or Follicular Phase
In the ________________ phase, the follicle secretes estrogen that helps the oocyte mature. preovulation
The ____________________ also stimulates hormone production by the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary estrogen
- Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone stimulate the production of the ___________________ corpus luteum
________________________ – The ovarian cycle of events that take place after ovulation Postovulation or Luteal Phase
___________________ – The first phase of the uterine cycle phase Proliferative Phase
The endometrium slowly reaches its maximum thickness ____ to ____ days after ovulation 8, 10
_______________ – The shedding of the endometrium Menses
During __________, the proliferated cells die and shed from the lowest layer of the endometrium menses
A significant amount of iron is lost during menses, making women more susceptible to iron-deficiency disorders, such as ____________ anemia
The “morning after pill” and _____________ interfere with the proliferation and maintenance of the uterine lining. RU486
___________________ – The sequence of events that prepare the uterus for pregnancy Uterine Cycle
_________________ – The act of mating Copulation or Sexual Intercourse
___________________ – The inability to produce or maintain an erection Erectile Dysfunction
____________________ – The external opening of the urethra Urethral Meatus
________________ – The process of ejecting semen from the penis Ejaculation
_____________ neural impulses facilitate the contractions needed for ejaculation Autonomic
It is estimated that _______________ sperm are ejaculated in an average intercourse 400 million
___________________ – An intense sensation that occurs at the height of sexual excitement Orgasm
_________________ – The loss of an erection Detumescence
_________________ – The point at which fertilization occurs Conception
The sperm can survive up to ____ hours in the female’s reproductive tract 48
Many sperm are destroyed in the female reproductive tract due to ______________ conditions of the mucous acidic
______________ – A packet of enzymes in a sperm’s head Acrosome
___________________ – The process of embryo formation Embryogenesis
___________________ – Twins produced by the simultaneous fertilization of two egg cells Fraternal Twins
___________________ begins when the fertilized egg, now called a zygote, undergoes its first mitosis Embryogenesis
- A zygote undergoes mitosis about every ____ hours. The typical body cell takes about ____ hours to complete mitosis 7, 22
As the embryo develops, it reaches a stage called the blastula, or blastocyst, just as it enters the fundus of the uterus ___ days after fertilization 7
_____________________ – A hollow sphere of cells formed by repeated mitosis of the zygote Blastula or Blastocyst
_____________________ – A hollow sphere of cells formed by repeated mitosis of the zygote Blastula or Blastocyst
_____________________ – A hollow sphere of cells formed by repeated mitosis of the zygote Blastula or Blastocyst
______________________ – Attachment of the embryo to the endometrial lining Implantation
_________________ – An organ that nourishes the developing fetus in the uterus Placenta
________________ – The condition in which an embryo is developing within the uterus Pregnancy
_______________________ – A hormone produced by the placenta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
___________ is a protein hormone that is produced by the placenta. The hormone maintains pregnancy by triggering the release of estrogen and progesterone. hCG
hCG hormone is also a useful indicator of pregnancy. It is present in the blood and urine in detectable amounts ____ days after fertilization 10
______________ – An embryonic stage in which the three basic tissue germ layers form Gastrula
Identical twins usually form at the _______________ stage gastrula
_________________ – Twins that develop from one fertilized egg Identical Twins
___________________ – Twins whose bodies are joined together at birth Conjoined Twins
_____________ – A stage of development before birth Fetus
_______________ – A fluid-filled sac that surrounds the fetus (bag of waters) Amniotic Sac
_________________ – Fluid within the amniotic sac Amniotic Fluid
The fetus is almost completely formed by the end of month ___ of pregnancy 8
__________ – The beginning of childbirth Labor
Physicians are not completely sure about the factors that bring about the onset of labor. It is most likely due to hormone interactions between the fetus and the mother’s __________________ Pituitary Gland
The first stage of labor is usually the dilation of the ___________ cervix
The pituitary hormone ______________ is important in maintaining the muscle contractions needed for labor oxytocin
_____________ – A fluid produced by the mammary glands in late pregnancy and just after labor Colostrum
Created by: Lauren G.