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ANA 113 Lecture 37

Female Reproductive System

Primary sex organs of the female reproductive system Ovaries
Secondary sex organs of the female reproductive system vagina, uterine tubes, uterus and mammary glands
Location of the ovaries lateral wall of the abdominopelvic cavity, approximately at the level of the anterior superior iliac spine
Function of the ovaries production of the mature ova, endocrine gland produces two hormones: estrogen and progesterone
Structure of the ovaries small, almond shaped, not palpable. divided into a medulla and cortex
What does the medulla of the ovaries contain? (central portion) nerves and blood vessels
What does the cortex of the ovaries contain? thousands of "follicles" in various stages of development
primordial (primary) follicles approximately 400,000 at birth (immature follicles- ova and surounding capsule)
Seconday follicles second maturation stage
Graafian follicles mature ova which rupture from surrounding follicle during ovulation
corpus luteum "glandular" structure which develops from follicle after the ova has been extruded (secretes estrogen or progesterone)
corpus albicans degenerated corpus luteum
Location of the uterine tubes extend laterally from the uterus
Structure of the uterine tubes muscular tube approximately 10 inches long, terminal (lateral) end is funnel shaped, has fingerlike projections called fimbriae
Function of the uterine tubes communicate with the uterus (rhythmic contractions of smooth muscle), transport ova from ovaries to the uterus, site of fertilization
Why are females more likely to get pelvic inflamatory disease than males? The fimbriaed ends of the uterine tubes open into the peritoneal cavity which allows for a direct connection between the female peritoneal cavity and the external environment
Location of the uterus between the bladder and rectum, within the pelvic cavity, generally anteflexed (tilted slightly anteriorly)
Function of the uterus provides site for implantation of fertilized ova, houses developing fetus, capible of contraction during delvery to aid in the birthing process
Structure of the uterus hollow, pear-shaped organ, thick muscular walls, divided into three regions
What are the three regions of the uterus? fundus, body and cervix
What three layers make up the uterine wall? perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
perimetrium thin outer layer CT covering of the uterine wall
Myometrium middle layer of the uterine wall, composed of smooth muscle
Endometrium innermost layer of the uterine wall, "mucosal layer", divided into stratum funtionale and stratum basale
Stratum functionale suferficial layer (closest to uterine cavity) this is the layer shed during menstration
Stratum basale deep to the stratum functional, very vascular, regenerated to rebuild the layer of tissue shed during menstration
Location of the vagina extends from the uterus to external orifice, posterior to bladder and urethra, anterior to rectum
Fornices "spaces" formed by the protrusion of the cervix into the vagina
How many fornices are in the vagina? 4-posterior, anterior and lateral (2)
Vaginal orifice located between te urethral orifice and the anus
Hymen membrane which may partially cover the vaginal orifice
Muscosal layer of the vaginal wall innermost layer, composed of stratified squamous epithelium, mucous glands present which secrete "acidic" environment
Muscular layer of the vagina composed of smooth muscle
Fibrous layer of the vagina outermost layer, composed of CT
Vulva external genitalia of the female
mons pubis pad of adipose tissue, covers symphysis pubis
labia majora thickened, longitudinal folds of skin which protect genitalia
labia minora small folds of skin located medial to labia majora
clitoris small rounded projection composed of erectile tissue, located anterior to urethral orifice
vestibule region enclosed by labia minora, contains vaginal and urethral orifices
vestibular glands (Bartolin's glands) secrete mucous into the vestibule to lubricate the vaginal canal
Perineum triangular region bounded anteriorly by the pubic arch, posteriorly by the coccyx and laterally by the ischiopubic rami.
Pelvic diaphragm muscles of the perineum that form the floor of the pelvis
What two triangluar shaped regions can the perineum be divided into? urogenital triangle (contains external genetalia) and the anal triangle (contains the anus)
Mammary glands modified sweat glands and adipose tissue
Position of the mammary glands overlies pectoralis major (superficial), extends from rib 2 to rub 6
Lobes (of mammary glands) glandular tissue seperated by adipose tissue
Lobules composed of alveoli, suspensory ligament and lactiferous duct
Alveoli (of mammary gland) glandular sacs which secrete milk
suspensory ligaments of cooper CT which support the brest
lactiferous duct caries milk from gland to nipple
Nipple approximately at level of the T4 (dermatomal level), areolar= dark pigmented region
lymphatic drianage of the mammary glands 75% of lymph drains towards axillary nodes (laterally)
Created by: Kachmiel



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