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A&P Chp 14

Urinary System

What organs make up the Urinary System? Kidneys, Ureter, Urinary Bladder and Urethra
What functions do the Kidneys perform? Forms Urine, Maintains blood pH, electrolytes, and water homeostasis and produce erythropoietin
what is tubular secretion, what role does it play in waste removal and pH maintenance? . Tubular secretion is the removal of urea and other wastes by the peritubular capillary system around the tubule system. It involves waste removal not associated with the glovmerulus
Which two hormones create water retention in the body? how are their modes of action different from each other? Water retention in kidney is increased by antidiuretic hormone from pituitary gland and aldosterone from, the adrenal gland. ADH causes uptake water through water channels in the collecting duct while aldosterone reabsorbs water as it takes up potassium
What is a Nephron? Tubular structure that filter the urine in the kidneys
Blood vessel components of a nephron. . Afferent arterioles takes renal blood supply to the bundle of capillaries called the glomerulus. Blood from the glomerulus then enters the efferent artiole which then branches out around the tubule system before exiting the kidney through vines.
Urethra Tube that transfers urine from the bladder to the bodies exterior
Adipose Capsule Cushioning of fat that encases each kidney
Renal Fascia Connective tissue that secures each kidney to the posterior abdominal wall
Hilus Medial concave curve of each kidney
Renal Artery Branch of the abdominal aorta that carries blood to the kidneys
Renal Vein Vein that carries blood from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava
Renal Cortex The outer portion of the kidneys
Renal Medulla Soft, marrow-like structure in the center of each kidney
Renal Pyramid Triangular collection of tissue in the renal medulla
Renal Pelvis A cavity of the kidney where formed urine is collected before it enters the ureter
Renal Column Renal cortex tissue that extends inward between the renal pyramid
Trigone Smooth triangle area of the urinary bladder floor
Internal Urinary Sphincter Involuntary muscular ring at the exit of the urinary bladder
External Urinary Sphincter Voluntary muscular ring located in the urethra (controls Urination)
Describe the reflex that controls urination. The reflex arc for urination begins when the bladder stretches as it fills with urine. Stretch receptors then send a signal into a reflex arc that affects the detrusor muscles of the bladder.
Four medical terms that describe abnormalities in urine voiding and explain what each means. urine retention – a diminished ability to void urine; anuria – a lack of urine to be voided; oliguria – the voiding of only small amounts of urine; poyluria – the voiding of large amounts of urine
Filtration Plasma and other substances that removed from the blood in the renal corpuscle.
What is the lining of the Bladder composed of? Transitional Epithelium- Tissue that changes shape with expansion and contraction of underlying tissue.
Detrusor Muscle The smooth muscle of the Urinary Bladder.
The three distinct areas of the kidneys... Renal Cortex(outer layer), Renal Medulla(soft structure in the middle) and the Renal Pyramids (triangle tissue in the medulla)
Nephron's are composed of _______ and _______ Blood Vessels and renal tubules
Urine is formed in three stages: 1. Glomerular filtration 2. Tubular reabsorption 3. Tubular secretion
Urination involves both _________ and ________ control Reflexive and Voluntary
Conditions of abnormal urine voiding: Anuria, Urinary Retention, Oligouria, and Polyuria
Water is absorbed in the ____________ Loop of Henle Descending
________ and ________ are absorbed in the Ascending Loop of Henle Sodium and Chloride ions.
Created by: mrskater