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Body Vocab.

adrenal At, near, or on the kidneys; of or relating to the adrenal glands or their secretions.
adrenal cortex The outer portion of the adrenal glands that produces several steroid hormones, including cortisol and aldosterone.
aorta the main trunk of the arterial system, conveying blood from the left ventricle of the heart to all of the body except the lungs.
arteriole any of the smallest branches of an artery, terminating in capillaries
bacillus any rod-shaped or cylindrical bacterium of the genus Bacillus, comprising spore-producing bacteria;
bile duct a large duct that transports bile from the liver to the duodenum
bursa A sac or saclike bodily cavity, especially one containing a viscous lubricating fluid and located between a tendon and a bone or at points of friction between moving structures.
calculus a stone, or concretion, formed in the gallbladder, kidneys, or other parts of the body.
calyx A cuplike structure or organ, such as one of the cuplike divisions of the pelvis or of the kidney.
carcinoma An invasive malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue that tends to metastasize to other areas of the body; cancer.
cecum The large blind pouch forming the beginning of the large intestine. Also called blind gut; A saclike cavity with only one opening.
cerebellum a large portion of the brain, serving to coordinate voluntary movements, posture, and balance in humans, being in back of and below the cerebrum and consisting of two lateral lobes and a central lobe.
cerebral cortex The extensive outer layer of gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres, largely responsible for higher brain functions, including sensation, voluntary muscle movement, thought, reasoning, and memory.
choroid (coat) a pigmented, highly vascular membrane of the eye that is continuous with the iris and lies between the sclera and the retina, functioning to nourish the retina and absorb scattered light.
ciliary Of, relating to, or resembling cilia.
coccyx a small triangular bone forming the lower extremity of the spinal column in humans, consisting of four ankylosed rudimentary vertebrae; tailbone
cochlea A spiral-shaped cavity of the inner ear that resembles a snail shell and contains nerve endings essential for hearing.
common bile duct The duct formed by the union of the cystic duct and the hepatic duct that carries bile from the liver and the gallbladder to the duodenum.
duodenum the first portion of the small intestine, from the stomach to the jejunum.
fascia a band or sheath of connective tissue investing, supporting, or binding together internal organs or parts of the body.
Eustachian tube A slender tube that connects the tympanic cavity with the nasal part of the pharynx and serves to equalize air pressure on either side of the eardrum
gallbladder a pear-shaped, muscular sac attached to the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver, in which bile is stored and concentrated.
ganglion A group of nerve cells forming a nerve center, especially one located outside the brain or spinal cord; A benign cystic lesion resembling a tumor, occurring in a tendon sheath or joint capsule.
gland a cell, group of cells, or organ producing a secretion
glomerulus a compact cluster of capillaries, also called Malpighian tuft; a tuft of convoluted capillaries in the nephron of a kidney, functioning to remove certain substances from the blood before it flows into the convoluted tubule.
hydrophysis (pituitary gland) the master gland of the endocrine system; located at the base of the brain
capillary the smallest type of blood vessel in the human body
ventricles the two lower chambers of the heart