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chap 4 review

abduction the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
adduction the movement of a limb toward the midline of the body
atonic lacking normal muscle tone or strength
atrophy weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures
biceps brachii biceps, formed from two divisions
bradykinesia extreme slowness in movement
chronic fatigue syndrome a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems
circumduction the circular movement at the distal(far) end of a limb
contraction the tightening of a muscle
contracture the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues
cramp a localized muscle spasm named for its cause
deltoid muscle forms the muscular cap of the shoulder
depression the act of lowering a body part
dorsiflexion bends the foot upward at the ankle
electromyography a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation
elevation the act of raising or lifting a body part
ergonomics the study of the human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment
extension increasing the angle between two bones or the straightening of a limb
fascia the sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles or groups of muscles
fasciitis inflammation of a fascia
fasciotomy a surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure
fibromyalgia syndrome a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms
flexion decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint
hemiparesis slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body
hemiplegia total paralysis affecting only one side of the body
hyperextension the extreme or overextension of a limb or body part beyond its normal limit
hypertonia a condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles
hypokinesia abnormally decreased muscle function or activity
hypotonia a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles
muscular dystrophy a group of more than 30 genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement, without affecting the nervous system
myalgia tenderness or pain in the muscles
myocele the herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it
myectomy the surgical excision of a portion of a muscle
myocardial muscles form the muscular walls of the heart
myomalacia abnormal softening of muscle tissue
myoplasty the surgical repair of a muscle
oblique slanted or at an angle
paralysis the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply
paraplegia the paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
plantar flexion bends the foot downward at the ankle
pronation the act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward
quadriplegia paralysis of all four extremeties
relaxation when a muscle returns to its original form
RICE Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
rotation turns a bone on its own axis
shin splint a painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia
skeletal muscles voluntary, striated, attached to the bones of the skeleton and make body motions possible
smooth muscles involuntary, unstriated, located in the walls of internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and ducts leading from glands
spasm a sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles
sphincter a ring-like muscle that tightly constructs the opening of a passageway
spinal cord injury the type of paralysis is determined by the level of the vertebra closest to the injury
sprain an injury of a joint, such as ankle, knee, or wrist that usually involves a stretched or torn ligament
strain an injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon
supination the act of rotating the arm or the leg so that the palm of the hand, or sole of the foot, is turned forward or upward
tendinitis an inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint
tendon a narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
tenodesis the surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone
transverse in a crosswise direction
triceps formed from three divisions
Created by: cudawn



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