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Med. Term. Review1

Neurology/Psychiatry Review

Cranial nerve I Olfactory nerve (smell)
Cranial nerve II Optic nerve (vision)
Cranial nerve III Oculomotor nerve (movement of eyeball, eyelids, and iris - to change the pupil size)
Cranial nerve IV Trochlear nerve (movement of eyeball)
Cranial nerve V Trigeminal nerve (sensation in eyelids, scalp, face, lips, and tongue. Movement of the muscles for chewing. 3 nerves: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves.
Cranial nerve VI Abducens muscle (movement of the eye)
Cranial nerve VII Facial nerve (taste from tongue, control of the salivary and lacrimal glands. Movement of facial muscles.)
Cranial nerve VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve (hearing and balance - auditory nerve)
Cranial nerve IX Glossopharyngeal nerve (taste - back of tongue. Movement of muscles for swallowing. Controls parotid salivary glands.)
Cranial nerve X Vagus nerve (taste - soft palate and throat. Sensation - ears, diaphragm, and organs of chest and abdomen. Controls heart beat and smooth muscles - bronchi/GI tract. "Wanderer nerve"
Cranial nerve XI Accessory nerve (movement of muscles for swallowing, the vocal cords, and muscles of the neck and upper back. Two of its branches help the vagus nerve.
Cranial nerve XII Hypoglossal nerve (Movement of the tongue)
Autonomic nervous system Heart muscle, smooth muscle, glands
Somatic nervous system Voluntary skeletal muscles
Neurotransmitters Chemicals that relay messages from one neuron to another.
Norepinephrine Controls involuntary processes (Ex: Heart and respiratory rate) when the body is active or exercising.
Increased levels of norepinephrine cause: aggression, mania, and infatuation (foolish desire to want something).
Decreased levels of norepinephrine cause: depression
Epinephrine "Fight or flight" response, occurs during stress, anxiety, fear, or anger.
Increased levels of epinephrine cause: anxiety, social phobia, performance phobia, and panic attacks
Dopamine Cocaine, narcotic drugs & alcohol increase the amount of dopamine, and it causes euphoria and excitement "HIGH."
Increased levels of dopamine cause: Infatuation Note: An increased level in the limbic lobe and a decreased level in the frontal lobe causes paranoia.
Decreased levels of dopamine cause: schizophrenia and depression
Serotonin neurotransmitter of brain and spinal cord
Decreased levels of serotonin cause: depression Note: A decreased level of serotonin and an increased level of norepinephrine causes violent behavior
GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid) inhibitory neurotransmitter
Decreased levels of GABA cause: anxiety
Tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure Unconsciousness with excessive motor activity. Alternates between excessive muscle tone with rigidity (tonic) and jerking muscle contractions (clonic)in extremities with tongue biting. Usually lasts 1 to 2 minutes.
Absence (petit mal) seizure Impaired consciousness with slight or no muscle activity. Includes vacant staring, repetitive blinking, or facial tics. Lasts 5 to 15 seconds. The patient is unaware of the seizure and can have several per day.
Complex partial (psychomotor) seizure There is some degree of impairment of consciousness. Involuntary muscle contractions. There can be automatisms (lip smacking). Lasts 1 to 2 minutes.
Simple partial (focal motor) seizure No impairment of consciousness. The patient is aware of seizure and has involuntary motor movements of hand or turning of head. There may be some sensory hallucinations. Usually lasts 1 to 2 minutes.
Limbic lobe (brain) Located along the medial edges of right and left cerebral hemispheres, superior to the corpus callosum (bridge that connects right and left cerebral cortexes.)
Limbic system Limbic lobe, thalamus,and hypothalamus. It links the unconscious mind to the conscious mind.
Thalamus Location Located in the center of the cerebrum and forms the walls of the 3rd ventricle.
Thalamus Functions Relay station - receives sensory information from the 5 senses and relays it to the midbrain. Relays sensory information to the cerebrum where it is analyzed and compared with memories.
Hypothalamus Location Located below the thalamus, forms the floor and part of walls of 3rd ventricle.
Hypothalamus Functions Controls emotions of pleasure, excitement, fear, anger, sexual arousal, and bodily responses to these emotions. Also contains the feeding center. Triggers the "fight or flight" response to danger. (epinephrine)
Hippocampus elongated, curving structure with two heads, one is located in the temporal lobe. The two tails join as the fornix in the center of the brain. Stores long-term memories and helps compare present and past emotions and experiences.
Amygdaloid bodies almond-shaped area in each temporal lobe. Interpret facial expressions, new social situations, and identify situations that could be dangerous. Integrate sensory info., thoughts, and long-term memories. Most active during emotions, fear, anger,
Fornix located along the floor of each lateral ventricle. Connects hippocampus in each temporal lobe to the thalamus and to amygdaloid bodies.
Frontal lobe Predicts future events/consequences. Exerts conscious control over skeletal muscles. Gustatory cortex (taste). Speech center (muscles for speech). Located at the front of the head (forehead).
Occipital lobe Receives and analyzes sensory information from the eyes. Contains visual cortex for sense of sight. Vision. Located at back of the head above the cervical spine.
Parietal lobe Receives and analyzes sensory information about temperature, touch, pressure, vibration, and pain from skin/organs. Located at back of the head above occipital lobe on both sides of head. Somatosensory area (functions of body sensations).
Temporal lobe Auditory cortex - hearing, olfactory cortex - smell. Located on both sides of the head near the ears at temples.
acrophobia fear of heights
agoraphobia fear of crowds or public places
arachnophobia fear of spiders
claustrophobia fear of closed in spaces
microphobia fear of germs
ophidiophobia fear of snakes
social phobia fear of being embarrassed or humiliated in front of others
thanatophobia fear of death
xenophobia fear of strangers
triskaidekaphobia fear of the number 13.
Created by: 100001033451881