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Anatomy QI:Final

Cell Anatomy and Skeletal System

what divides the two ventral cavities diaphragm
two parts of the thoracic cavity mediastinum (contains pericardium) and pleura
three organs found in mediastinum heart, trachea, esophagus
outer wall of a serous cavity parietal serosa
inner wall of a serous cavity visceral serosa
biological catalysts enzymes
mechanism by which particles enter a cell endocytosis
primary nonspecific defense mechanism of the host, an example of endocytosis phagocytosis
mechanism that moves substances out of the cell exocytosis
site of protein synthesis ribosomes
network within the cytoplasm endoplasmic reticulum
cell membrane factory rough ER
stores ionic calcium in the cell rough ER
site of lipid metabolism in the cell smooth ER
post office of the cell golgi apparatus
powerhouse of the cell mitochondria
membrane-walled sacs that contain digestive enzymes lysosomes
cell skeleton cytoskeleton
control center of the cell nucleus
tissue responsible for covering and lining epithelial tissue
tissue responsible for support connective tissue
tissue responsible for movement muscle tissue
tissue responsible for control/communication nervous tissue
one layer of cells in epithelial tiss. simple
more than one layer of cells in epithelial tiss. stratified
cells wider than tall, plate-like squamous
cells as wide as they are tall cuboidal
cells that are taller than they are wide columnar
ducts that carry products to an epithelial surface or into a body cavity exocrine gland
ductless glands that secrete substances directly into the blood stream endocrine gland
organ that functions for both exocrine and endocrine pancreas
most diverse and abundant tissue connective tissue
4 types of connective tissue connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood
three types of membranes that combine epithelial and connective tissue 1) cutaneous membrane, 2) mucous membrane, 3) serous membrane
striated and voluntary muscle tissue skeletal muscle
striated and involuntary muscle tissue cardiac muscle
non-striated and involuntary muscle tissue smooth muscle
two layers of skin epidermis, dermis
layer of skin classified as stratified squamous epithelial tissue epidermis
layer of skin classified as connective tissue dermis
lies deep to the skin and is not considered part of the skin hypodermis
most abundant cell type in the epidermis, produces keratin keratinocytes
epidermal cell type which produces a dark skin pigment melanocytes
epidermal cell type associated with a sensory nerve ending, receptor for touch merkel cells
epidermal cell type that uses endocytosis to take up antigens, immune system langerhans cells
superficial layer of the dermis papillary layer
papillary layer of dermis composed of ______ connective tissue areolar
deep layer of the dermis reticular layer
reticular layer of dermis composed of _______ connective tissue dense irregular
is dermis vascularized? yes
two names for hypodermis superficial fascia, subcutaneous layer
two tissue types in hypodermis areolar and adipose connective tissue
flexible strand of dead hard keratin hair
two parts of a hair root, shaft
sebaceous glands occur everywhere on the body except palms and soles
sebaceous glands secrete sebum
another name for sweat gland sudoriferous gland
true sweat is 99% water, some NaCl and metabolic wastes
sweat gland that produces true sweat eccrine gland
larger of the sweat glands, produce sweat with fatty substances and proteins apocrine gland
scale-like modification of epidermis, made of hard keratin nails
membrane of fibrous connective tissue around the surface of cartilage perichrondrium
most abundant cartilage type hyaline cartilage
cartilage found at the ends of long bones and costal cartilage hyaline cartilage
cartilage which contains many elastic fibers, able to tolerate repeated bending elastic cartilage
cartilage found in the ear and epiglottis elastic cartilage
cartilage which resists strong compression and strong tension fibrocartilage
cartilage found in the intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, and menisci of the knee fibrocartilage
blood cell formation hematopoieisis
bones longer than they are wide long bones
bones roughly cube-shaped short bones
thin and flattened, usually curved bones flat bones
bones of various shapes which do not fit into other categories irregular bones
humerus is classified as a long bone
carpals are classified as short bones
ribs are classified as flat bones
hip bones and bones of the vertebral column are classified as irregular bones
dense outer layer of bone compact bone
internal network of bone (three names) spongy, cancellous, trabecular bone
shaft of a bone diaphysis
ends of a bone epiphysis
hollow cavity in the shaft of the bone filled with yellow marrow medullary cavity
the fibrous membrane that covers the external surfaces of bones except at their articular surfaces periosteum
fibers extending from the periosteum into the lamellae of the bone sharpey's fibers/perforating fibers
membrane lining the medullary cavity of bone and other inner bone surfaces endosteum
microscopic bone unit of compact bone consisting of haversian canals and lamellae, miniature weight-bearing pillars osteon/haversian system
layer of bone matrix in which the collagen fibers and mineral crystals align and run in a single direction lamella
fibers of adjacent lamella run in ______ directions opposite
runs through the core of each osteon, contains blood vessels and nerve fibers central/haversian canal
lie at right angles to central canals and connect blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to the central canals and marrow cavity perforating canals/volkmann's canals
mature bone cells osteocytes
osteocyte bodies occupy small cavities in compact bone called lacunue
spider legs of osteocytes occupy thin tubes called canaliculi
organic bone tissue makes up ____ of bone, list an abundant tissue that contributes to flexibility of bone 35%, collagen
inorganic bone tissue makes up ____ of bone, name a mineral salt that provides bone with hardness and resistance to compressibility 65%, calcium phosphate
how many total bones? in axial skeleton? appendicular? 206, 80, 126
name the paired cranial bones temporal, parietal
name the unpaired cranial bones frontal, occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid
feature of the frontal bone which holds the large frontal lobes of the brain anterior cranial fossa
4 regions of the temporal bone squamosal, tympanic, petrous, mastoid
zygomatic process in on the ______ region of the _______ bone squamosal region, temporal
mandibular fossa is on the ______ region of the ______ bone squamosal region, temporal
temporal region that surrounds the external auditory meatus tympanic region
styloid process is on the ______ region of the _____ bone tympanic region, temporal
region just posterior to the tympanic region on the temporal bone mastoid process
mastoid process is on the _____ region of the ____ temporal bone mastoid, temporal
region of the temporal bone which projects medially and contributes to the cranial base petrous region
carotid canal located on ____ region of the temporal bone petrous
jugular foramen located on the _____ region of the temporal bone petrous
three ossicles of the ear malleus, incus, stapes
bone that spans the floor of the cranial base sphenoid bone
saddle-shaped prominence on the superior surface of the body, seat of the saddle is called the ______, holds what? sella turcica, hypophyseal fossa, pituitary gland
lies between nasal and sphenoid bones, forms most of the medial bony region between the nasal cavity and orbits ethmoid bone
the superior surface of the ethmoid bone, contribute to the roof of the nasal cavity-what passes through the openings in this structure cribriform plate, olfactory nerve
ethmoid bone: extend medially from the lateral masses and protrude into the nasal cavity superior and middle nasal conchae
ethmoid bone: between the two cribriform plates, helps secure the brain w/in cranial cavity crista galli
ethmoid bone: projects inferiorly and forms superior part of nasal septum perpendicular plate
unpaired facial bones (2) mandible and vomer
paired facial bones (6) maxillary, zygomatic, nasals, lacrimals, palatines, inferior nasal conchae
forms the inferior part of the nasal septum vomer
thin, curved bones that project medially to form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity inferior nasal conchae
only bone with no articulation with any other bone hyoid
how many number of vertebrae? 26
how many cervical vertebrae 7
how many thoracic vertebrae 12
how many lumbar vertebrae 5
inferior to lumbar vert sacrum
most inferior region of vertebral column coccyx
cervical and lumbar curvatures are ______ from a posterolateral view concave
thoracic and sacral curvatures are _____ from a posterolateral view convex
c1 vert is the atlas
c2 vert is the axis
dens is located on the axis
sternum, 3 sections manubrium, body, xiphoid process
total ribs 12
true ribs 7
false ribs 5
floating ribs 2
number of bones in upper extremities, lower extremities? 64, 62
more stable of the girdles for movement pelvic girdle
more flexible of the girdles for movement pectoral girdle
medial condyle of the humerus, articulates with ulna trochlea
lateral condyle of the humerus that articulates with the radius capitulum
humerus: located directly superior to the trochlea on posterior surface, receives the olecranon process of ulna when extended olecranon fossa
humerus: located superior to the trochlea on anterior surface, receives the coronoid process of ulna when flexed coronoid fossa
in anatomical position, which of the forearm bones is lateral? medial? radius is lateral, ulna is medial
main bone that forms the elbow joint ulna
smooth depression on the ulna which receives the radius radial notch
name the 8 carpal bones scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
metacarpals and phalanges are all numbered 1-5 starting with which digit? pollex
portion of the os coxae which forms the sacroiliac joint, what region of bone? iliac, on the auricular region
the strongest part of the hip bone, bear most of our weight when sitting ischial tuberosities
two pubic regions of os coxae joined by _____ cartilage at the _____ fibrocartilage, pubic symphysis
a large hole between the pubis and ischium obturator foramen
medial bone of the leg tibia
forms the medial bulge of the ankle medial malleolus
stick-like lateral bone of the leg fibula
forms the lateral bulge of the ankle lateral malleolus
ankle bone talus
heel bone calcaneus
cuboid, navicular, and the cuneiforms are examples of tarsals
Created by: amyziolkowski



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