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ANA 113 Lecture 34

Urinary System 1

Kidneys paired organs located in the abdominal region
Location of kidneys retroperitoneal (for surgery go through the back, located on either side of the vertebral column (T12-L3)
Function of the kidneys clears blood of waste products, toxins, etc (filters blood), regulates concentration of substances in the blood (salt, water, etc-> helped by hormones), produces erythropoetin, a hormone (affects RBC production), produces renin (influences blood pressure)
Gross structure of kidneys Lima bean shaped, hilum, coverings
Hilum indentation on medial side of kidneys, renal vessels enter and leave, ureter (transports urine)leaves kidney
What are the 3 layers of the covering of the kidney? renal capsule, perirenal fat (adipose) and renal fascia
renal capsule innermost layer on kidney, CT (when you hold a kidney this is what you are touching)
renal fascia CT which anchors the kidney in place
Renal cortex outmost region of the internal structure of the kideny, location of most of the glomeruli
Renal medulla innermost region of the internal structure of the kidney, contains tubules and blood vessels
major and minor calyces funnel-shaped chambers which recieve urine produced by the nephron
Renal pelvis formed by the joining of the major and minor calyces, dilated uppermost portion of the ureter, located at the hilum (medial side) of the kidney
What is the path of urine in the kidney? nephron->collecting ducts->tubules in renal pyramid-> minor calyces->major calyx->renal pelvis-> ureter
What is the sequence of blood supply in the kidney? renal artery->afferent arterioles->glomerulus->efferent arterioles->peritubular capillaries->venules->renal vein
Nephron functional unit of the kidney and is responsible for producing urine. it is composed of a specialized renal tubule associated with a unique vascular network composed of a glomerulus and peritubular capillaries
Glomerulus specialized network of capillaries, located in the renal corterx between the afferent and efferent arterioles. composed of Fenestrated epithelium
Fenestrated epithelium specialized epithelium of the glomerulus that has little spaces between the cells (little pores)
Peritubular cappillaries branches of the efferent arteriole and empty into the kidney's venous system. they are the site of reabsorption of water and other substances (mosstly sodium and water) Hormones involved: ACTH and alderostone
Bowman's capsule makes up the tubular portion of the nephron (first portion), double walled, cup-shaped portion of the kidney tubule, surrounds the glomerulus, lined with epitheilum containing podocyctes, has filtration slits
podocytes specialized cells with extensions called foot processes
What is the structure of the filtration slits? the foot processes of the podocytes interdigitate to form an elaborate network of small clefts between these cells. the clefts are called filtration slits and are guarded by a thin membrane-> creates a filtration barrier
What does the filtration barrier in the kidneys consist of? (barrier where blood in the glomerular capillaries must pass to reach the space in the bowman's capsule) consists of Fenstrated epithelium, the basement membrane of the glomerular capillary and a thin membrane covering the filtration slit
What are the portions of the nephron after the Bowman's capsule? (actually contiunations) proximal convoluted tubule->loop of Henle->distal conviluted tubule->(empty into-not part of bowman)common collecting (ducts) tubules-> (through renal pyramids)minor and major calyces->penal pelvis-> ureter->bladder->urethra
Created by: Kachmiel



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