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Chp 9 - Senses

Chapter Nine - Senses

________ inform us of changes in our environment Senses
What are the two types of senses General senses ; Special senses
____________ is the result of the information being interpreted in the CNS Sensation
To create a sensation each ___________ type responds to a specific type of stimulus. Once the receptor is stimulated, impulses are generated and travel from the receptor , by ______ or ________ nerves to the CNS sensory receptor ; spinal or cranial
Sensory adaptation is a ________ in the rate of impulse formation at the receptor due to repeated stimulation by the same stimulus Decline
Adaptation prevents _________ of the nervous system by unimportant stimuli Overloading
Once adaptation occurs, a stronger _______ is needed to gain a response Stimulus
__________ found in the dermis of the skin and are used for detecting temperature and pressure (heavy, light, and pain) Dermal receptors
General senses have 2 kinds of temperature receptors ________ receptors and _______ cold receptors Heat and Cold
________ ________are found deep in dermis and they are sensitive to temperatures above room temperature Heat receptors
__________ _________ are found near the surface of the dermis and are sensitive to temperatures below room temperature Cold receptors
Temperature receptors adapt quickly to constant ___________ Stimulation
__________ __________ are heavy pressure receptors found deep in dermis Pacinian corpuscles
________ _______ are light pressure(aka touch) receptors found shallow in dermis Meissner Corpuscles
______ _________ _________ function in touch, itch, temperature, and pain Free nerve endings
Free nerve endings are found wrapped around ____ _______ and throughout dermis Hair follicles
Pain impulses originate from ____ ________ but is felt in part of the body wall visceral organs
Pain is projected along _____ ______ used by neurons carrying impulses from both the body wall and visceral organs common nerves
Special sense receptors are _______ rather than widely distributed Localized
What the three different kinds of special sense receptors 1. Chemoreceptors 2. Mechanoreceptors 3. Photoreceptors
_______________ are sensitive to chemicals , they are used for taste and smell (found in noes and mouth) Chemoreceptors
__________ are sensitive to sound wave vibrations, used for hearing (found in ears) Mechanoreceptors
Photoreceptors are sensitive to ____ _______, used for sight (found in eyes) Light rays
To activate a taste cell, a _______ must be dissolved in a liquid Chemical
What are the six different taste sensations 1. Sweet 2. Sour 3. Bitter 4. Salty 5. Metallic 6. Umami (meat)
_______ __________ is due to activation of several receptor types and is associated with activation of olfactory receptors for smell, so… taste and smell are closely linked Flavor variety
_________ ___________ are located in upper portion of the nasal cavity Olfactory organs
Impulses are carried from _______ _____ by way of the olfactory cranial nerves to the brain Receptor cells
Humans can distinguish ___________ different odors 10,000
What are the 3 major parts of the ear 1. External ear 2. Middle ear 3. Inner ear
What are the 2 parts of the external ear 1. Auricle (also called the Pinna) 2. External auditory canal
The funnel-like structure made of cartilage and skin that collects sound and funnels it to external auditory canal is known as the Auricle
________ ___________________ is a short tube extending from auricle to the eardrum External auditory canal
_______ and hairs in the auditory canal keep foreign particles from reaching the eardrum Cerumen
The middle ear is composed of what 3 components 1. Tympanic membrane (eardrum) 2. Ear ossicles 3. Auditory Tube
_______ _______ is the barrier between internal and external ear Tympanic membrane
The tympanic membrane is externally covered by ________ and internally covered in ________ _______ Skin ; mucous membrane
Sound waves cause the tympanic membrane to ________ and transmit sound wave to ear ossicles Vibrate
What are the three bones that make up the Ear ossicles forming a lever system between tympanic membrane and inner ear 1. Malleus (hammer) 2. Incus (anvil) 3. Stapes (stirrup)
Vibrations from tympanic membrane pass from ______ to ________ to _______ Malleus ; incus ; stapes
Stapes vibrates on the oval window of _______ _______ inner ear
__________ _________Connects middle ear with the pharynx Auditory tube
The auditory tube Allows for air pressure in the middle ear to ______ external air pressure which is essential for eardrum to function properly equal
The _______ ________ is two systems of tubes and chambers embedded, one inside the other, one composed of membranes and one composed of bone Inner ear
Inner ear consists of three major parts… 1. Cochlea – for hearing 2. Vestibule – for static equilibrium 3. Semicircular canals – for dynamic equilibrium
The ______ is the coiled portion of the inner ear Cochlea
The 2 windows in the outer boney system covered only by membranes of inner system are 1. Oval window 2. Round window
_________ ____ ________ is in the cochlear duct, and contains sound receptors called hair cells Organ of Corti
The middle fluid filled chamber of the middle ear is called the _______ ____________ Conchlear Duct
When moved by fluid, hair cells come into contact with _______ __________ (located in the cochlear duct) tectorial membrane
Hair cells terminate into nerve fibers that form the ______ _______ of the vestibulocochlear nerve cochlear branch
______ _________ cause vibrations in the tympanic membrane which then vibrates the stapes on the oval window, Sounds waves
Vibration of the stapes on the oval windows causes movement in perilymph of _____ _______ and _______ __________, which causes movement of vestibular and basilar membranes, scala vestibule ; scala tympani
movement of vestibular and basilar membranes causes _____ ______ in the cochlear duct to contact the tectorial membrane and triggers an impulse to travel along the cochlear nerve hair cells
__________ is sense of balance Equilibrium
There are several ______ ______ involved in equilibrium and they are located in joint, muscles, eyes, and inner ear Sensory Receptors
What are the two types of equilibrium 1. Static 2. Dynamic
_______ ________ occurs when the head is motionless Static equilibrium
Receptors for static equilibrium are located inside the __________ Vestibule
_________ ______________ occurs when the head is moving Dynamic equilibrium
____________ __________ contain receptors that detect motion of the head located in 3 Canals are oriented at 90 degrees to each other to detect movement along three planes Semicircular canals
When heads turns, fluid in canals moves and pushes on the hair cells which bend, causing impulses to form that travel along the ______ ______ of the _______ ______ to the brain vestibular branch ; vestibulocochlear nerve
What are the functions of the Lacrimal Gland 1. Produce tear to keep the eye moist 2. Wash away foreign particles 3. They contain lysozymes which reduce the chances of infection
Tears collect at ________ _________ of the eye and drain into the _______ _______ Inner corner ; Nasal cavity
6 eye muscles originate on the back of the ____ _____ and insert on the _____ __ Eye orbit ; eyeball
What is the function of eye muscles Eye movement: side to side, up and down, and rolling
The wall of the eye is composed of what three layers 1. Sclera 2. Choroid coat 3. Retina
Interior spaces of the eye are filled with fluid to…. Support and maintain eye shape
_____ is the tough, fibrous, opaque, white portion of the eye that provides protection for delicate internal portions of eye and optic nerve Sclera
_____ is the anterior, convex, clear window of the eye that is part of sclera and Bends light rays as they pass through it, has no blood vessels or nerves Cornea
Sclera is the _____ layer of the eye Outer
Choroid coat is the ______ layer of the eye Middle
______ ______ contains all the blood vessels that nourish the eye Choroid coat
_____ ______ is an apparatus composed of a collection of different connective tissues, including tiny muscles that contract and pull on ______ _______ Ciliary body ; suspensory ligaments
suspensory ligaments, function together to change the shape of the lens which is made ______ for distance vision and made _____ for near vision thin ; thick
_____ is the colored portion of the eye that controls the amount of light entering the eye by controlling the size of the pupil Iris
_____ is the opening in the center of the iris that allows light to pass into the eye. Pupil
The pupil _______ in bright light and ______ in dim light. Constricts ; dilates
______ is the inner layer of the eye Retina
Retina contains the ________________ (rods and cones) Photoreceptors
______ are for black and white vision, functional in low light Rods
______ are for color vision and detail, require bright light to function Cones
In the retina ____ _______ has highest concentration of cones and ______ has second highest concentration of cones, few rods. The rest of the retina is mostly rods Fovea centralis ; Macula
_____ ______ is the blind spot that contains no photoreceptors Optic disc
The optic disc is where _____ ______ and ______ _____ enters the eye Blood vessels ; optic nerve
__________ is used to view the internal eye Opthalmoscope
_____ ________ is the space between cornea and lens Anterior cavity
The Anterior cavity is filled with a watery fluid called _______ _______ aqueous humor
_______ _______ is located behind the lens and is filled with a thick gel-like fluid called vitreous humor. Posterior cavity
The ______ ________ helps keep the retina in place by keeping it pressed against the walls of the eye ball vitreous humor
To see an image light must be ___________ precisely so it is focused on the fovea centralis and macula of the retina refracted (bent)
Light is refracted first and most by the _____, then the _____ _____ in the anterior cavity, then the lens, and then the _______ _______in the posterior cavity Cornea ; aqueous humor ; vitrous humor
Changing the shape of the lens helps us accommodate for near, intermediate, and far vision. This adjustment is called ___ ________ ______. The Accommodation Reflex
Eye optics causes the image to be ______ on the retina, the cerebral cortex (brain) corrects this ______ so objects are seen in their correct orientation Inverted ; inversion
Created by: hmurray90