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digestive urinary fluids

ELECTROLYTE BALANCE Electrolytes are ions & water follows the movement of ions
ACID-BASE BALANCE Many metabolic activities generate acidic conditions, but changes in pH can change many aspects of the body.
INTRACELLULAR FLUIDS are fluids within cells and account for ~60% of the water of the body.
EXTRACELLULAR FLUIDS include the blood plasma, interstitial fluid, & the water in extracellular matrix of bone and cartilage (also lymph, CSF, synovial fluid, serous fluids, aqueous humor, & inner ear). Water moves freely in the ECF.
Does water input have to balance water elimination? Yes
FLUID SHIFT is the movement of water between the ECF & the ICF.
hypertonic If the ECF becomes hypertonic, water is pulled FROM the cells (ICF).
hypotonic If the ECF becomes hypotonic, water is pulled INTO the cells (ICF).
Electrolyte balance is critical because: --can cause a gain or loss of water --of specific ions can diminish the activity of a tissue (e.g. lack of calcium can stop muscle action).
ACIDOSIS is a pH <7.35 (too acidic).
ALKALOSIS is a pH >7.45 (too alkaline).
PROTEIN BUFFER SYSTEM (in the ECF & ICF). Amino acids can respond to changes in H+ concentration by either releasing or accepting the H+ ions. Important proteins for buffering include plasma proteins and hemoglobin within RBCs.
The CARBONIC ACID vs. BICARBONATE SYSTEM (in the ECF). They interact to resist pH changes caused by metabolic activities (CO2).
The PHOSPHATE BUFFER SYSTEM (in the ICF). Dihydrogen phosphate within cells buffers their internal pH.
The Respiratory & Urinary Systems support the acid-base balance in the body by 1. Secreting or absorbing hydrogen ions, 2. controlling the excretion of acids & bases, and 3. generating additional buffers
RESPIRATORY COMPENSATION Changes in ventilation rates lead to changes in pH by raising or lowering CO2 levels.
RENAL COMPENSATION Variation in the renal secretion of H+ and reabsorption of bicarbonate helps maintain the pH in the ECF.
The URINARY SYSTEM functions to --eliminate organic wastes --regulate blood pressure & volume --regulate osmotic pressure in blood --help stabilize blood pH --conserve nutrients
KIDNEYS filter the blood and produce urine.
URETERS are tubes that carry the urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
URINARY BLADDER holds the urine temporarily.
URETHRA is a tube that carries the urine from the urinary bladder to the exterior.
Adrenal Gland sits atop each kidney
FIBROUS CAPSULE surrounds each kidney.
Where the the pyramid drain into? Minor Calyx
Where to the minor calyx drain into? major calyx
Where to the major calysis drain into? Renal Pelvis
Where does the renal pelvis drain to? Ureter
What is the primary purpose of urine production? The primary purpose for urine production is the excretion of dissolved solutes like metabolic wastes and excess ions
What do metabolic wastes include: UREA- ammonia is made in all cells from the amine group which is converted to urea by liver. CREATININE- from the breakdown of creatin phosphate URIC ACID- produced during the breakdown of RNA BILIRUBIN- from the breakdown of hemoglobin, Excess ions
The process that occur in urine formation are: FILTRATION, REABSORPTION, & SECRETION
FILTRATION is the process where a portion of the blood plasma enters the urine.
REABSORPTION is the process by which useful molecules are picked up by the cells of the urinary system and returned to the blood.
SECRETION is the process where certain undesirable molecules are removed from the blood and deposited into the urine for excretion.
Where do the renal artery and renal nerve enter the kidney? hilum
Where do the renal vein and ureter exit the kidney? Hilum
Trace a drop of blood through the kidney 1. Renal artery 2. Interlobar arteries 3. Arcuate arteries 4. Afferent arterioles 5. Glomerulus 6. Efferent arteriole 7. Peritubular capillaries 8. Venules 9. Arcuate veins 10. Interlobar veins 11. Renal vein
Nephron functional unit of kidney, which filter the blood and produce urine
Afferent Arteries break up into a capillary network, a “ball” of capillaries called the GLOMERULUS. These bring blood into the glomerulus.
EFFERENT ARTERIOLES travelfrom the glomerulus to the rest of the nephron and form a second network of capillaries.
PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES In nephrons found in the cortex, the second network
VASA RECTA In nephrons found mostly in the medulla, the peritubule capillaries of the second capillary network, long straight capillaries that parallel the Loop of Henle.
Glomerulus/Bowman's Capsule production of filtrate. Bowman’s capsule encloses the glomerulus with a squamos epithelium.
Proximal convoluted Tubule reabsorption of water, ions, and all other organic nutrients
Distal Convoluted Tubule secretion of ions, acids, toxins. Variable reabsorption of water, sodium ions, and calcium ions, (under hormonal control)
Collecting duct variable; receive urine; merge into papillary ducts, which deliver urine into the minor calyx; important for providing an adjustable reabsorbing of water and either reabsorbing or secreting sodium, potassium, hydrogen, and bicarbonate ions.
Ascending limb is thick walled and impermeable to water and the free movement of ions, but ions such as sodium and chlorine are actively pumped out of the urine.
Descending limb is thin walled and permeable to water, but not ions. Water moves out freely, ions stay in the urine—concentrating it. The movement of ions pulls water out of the urine from the descending limb and the collecting tubules.
PODOCYTE surrounds the glomerular capillary; form “foot processes” with narrow slits between the “feet”.
GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (GFR) depends on blood pressure, so any change in blood pressure affects filtration.
JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS helps trigger the hormonal control of the DCT & collecting ducts.
What forms the juxtaglomerular apparatus The distal convoluted tubule wraps back to the glomerulus & a cluster of cells in the DCT called the MACULA DENSA align with cells of the afferent arteriole (JUXTAGLOMERULAR CELLS)
What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus? The juxtaglomerular apparatus helps trigger the hormonal control of the DCT and collecting ducts. The JGA monitors the blood and secretes the hormones renin and erythropoietin
Where is the juxtaglomerular apparatus found along the nephron? renal corpuscle
Urea is derived from nitrogen. From where did the nitrogen come? Where is urea made? How is ammonia involved? Ammonia is made in all cells from the amine group (NH2) of amino acids and ammonia is converted to urea by the liver. The nitrogen atoms come from amino acids, purines and pyrimidines, creatine, and porphyrin.
What hormones are made by the juxtaglomerular apparatus? JGA secretes renin and erythropoietin.
Renin secreted by JGA and activates the enzyme angiotensin, which stimulates the secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex and ADH at the pituitary.
Erythropoietin secreted by JGA in response to low O2 levels. It stimulates the increased production and rapid maturation of RBC’s.
Aldosterone and ADH stimulate the DCT and collecting ducts to reabsorb more sodium and water
Drop in pressure at the glomerulus triggers the dilation of glomerular capillaries and a constriction of the efferent arteriole.
A RISE IN PRESSURE at a glomerulus triggers the constriction of the AFFERENT arterioles, restricting blood flow to the glomerulus and thereby lowering pressure.
ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE (ANP) opposes the action of renin-angiotension and lowers blood pressure & volume.
CALCITROL stimulates the absorption of calcium and magnesium by the intestines--secreted by the kidneys--stimulated by PTH.
Why are the afferent and efferent arterioles both called arterioles? Why is one NOT a venule? How do these two arterioles work relative to filtration in the nephron? both are arterioles mainly because of structure--no valves, and they regulate blood pressure in the glomerulus. The afferent takes blood to the glomerulus, and the efferent takes blood from the glomerulus.
DETRUSOR MUSCLE compresses the bladder to expel the urine
INTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER controls the opening of the urethra or the NECK region
EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER band of skeletal muscle, found at the urogenital diaphragm
MITURITION REFLEX controls actions of the internal & external urethral sphincters are important in urination (micturition).
What kind of epithelium lines the urinary bladder? How does this epithelium function? The urinary bladder is lined by transitional epithelium. When the bladder is full the epithelium is thinned and stretched, and when the bladder is empty the epithelium is thicker and relaxed.
What is the relationship between lymph, blood plasma, and interstitial fluid? How is urine similar to interstitial fluid? Location, and all are extracellular fluids--materials from the blood head to the tissues. Urine and interstitial fluid filtrate the blood.
Describe the relationship between renin and atrial natriuretic peptide. Artrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) opposes the action of renin-angiotension and lowers blood pressure and volume. The juxtaglomerular complex senses blood pressure at the glomerulus, and releases renin in response to low pressure.
regions of the small intestine DUODENUM, JEJUNUM, & ILEUM
ILEOCECAL VALVE marks the junctions with the large intestine.
MECHANICAL PROCESSING breaks down the physical structure of foods (e.g. chewing).
CHEMICAL PROCESSING breaks covalent bonds to hydrolyze foods to their smallest component (simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids). Enzymes catalyze these reactions.
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth, but the majority of digestion and “all” absorption occurs in the small intestine.
Protein digestion begins in the stomach with the denaturation of proteins by HCl and the beginning of hydrolysis by pepsin.
Lipid digestion egins in the small intestine, nearly all the digestion & absorption occurs here.
LIPASES hydrolyze the fats into fatty acids & monoglycerides.
CHYLOMICRONS coat monoglycerides with proteins
INTRINSIC FACTOR secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach. Vitamin B-12 can only be absorbed if bound to this.
21. What is intrinsic factor? Where is it made? What is its function? Where is it active? Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein made by the parietal cells of the stomach and is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.
Where is bile synthesized? What is the function of bile? Bile is produced in the liver by hepatocytes Biles is used to coat fats, making them soluble in the hydrophilic environment of the lumen of the small intestine. Consequently, enzymes can digest fats.
FLUID BALANCE the intake, outflow, & distribution of water
Created by: nancyms



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