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Anatomy Vocab Ch 13

Anatomy Vocab Ch 13 Marieb

nares nostrils
nose externally visible part of the respiratory system
nasal cavity interior of the nose; is divided by the nasal septum
olfactory receptors just beneath the ethmoid bone, the receptors for the sense of smell, located in the mucosa
respiratory mucosa the mucosa lining the nasal cavity
respiratory system nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli; purify, humidify and warm the incoming air
alveoli the terminal air sacs; dead end of the incoming oxygen; where the gas exchanges with blood
conchae lobes of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity, increase the surface area of the mucosa exposed to air; increase air turbulence in the nasal cavity; three levels, superior, middle, inferior
palate the partition between the nasal cavity and the oral cavity; both hard, supported by bone and soft, unsupported posterior part
cleft palate genetic defect, failure of the bones forming the palate to fuse medially
paranasal sinuses nasal cavity supported by the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary bones
sinuses lighten the skull, act as resonance chambers for speech; produce mucus, draining into the nasal cavities
nasolacrimal ducts drains tears from the eyes, empties into the nasal cavity
rhinitis inflammation of the nasal mucosa
sinusitis inflammation of the sinuses; passageways are blocked with mucus or infectious matter, air in sinus cavity is absorbed, creates a partial vacuum, creating a "sinus headache"
sinus headache see sinusitis
pharynx muscular passageway 5 inches long vaguely resembling a short garden hose; the throat
posterior nasal aperture connects the nasal cavity and pharynx
nasopharynx air enters into this from the nasal cavity
oropharynx the middle portion, between the naso- and laryno-pharynx
laryngopharynx the lower portion of the pharynx
esophagus where food enters from the pharynx
pharyngotympanic tubes drain the middle ear into the nasopharynx
otitis media ear infection
tonsils lymphatic tissue found in the pharynx; plays a role in the protection of the body
pharyngeal tonsil adenoid, high in the nasopharynx
palatine tonsils in the oropharynx at the end of the soft palate
lingual tonsils at the base of the tongue
tonsillitis inflamed and swollen pharyngeal tonsil tissue
larynx voice box; routes air and food into the proper channels; plays a role in speech; formed by eight rigid hyaline cartilages, and epiglottis
thyroid cartilage part of the larynx cartilage, AKA adam's apple
epiglottis protects the superior opening of the larynx; forms a lid over the opening of the larynx, routing food into the esophagus
true vocal cords (folds) mucous membrane of the larynx; vibration of these allow us to speak
glottis slitlike passageway between the vocal folds
trachea windpipe, about 4 inches; travels from the larynx to the 5th thoracic vertebra; lined with a ciliated mucosa, directing particles and debris away from the lungs to the throat
hyaline cartilage causes the trachea to be fairly rigid; aids the esophagus in staying open and expanding
main (primary) bronchi formed by the division of the trachea; joins at the hilum of the lung; right is wider, straighter and shorter than the left
lungs fairly large organs, occupy the entire thoracic cavity except for the mediastinum
mediastinum houses the heart, great blood vessels, bronchi, esophagus and other organs
apex the narrow superior portion of each lung deep to the clavicle
base the portion of the lung that rests on the diaphragm
pulmonary (visceral) pleura surface of each lung
parietal pleura lines the walls of the thorcic cavity
pleural fluid slippery serous secretion allowing the lungs to glide easily over the thorax wall during breathing; causes the pleural layers to cling together
pleural space potential space between the lungs and the thorax wall
pleurisy inflammation of the pleura
bronchioles the smallest of the conducting passageways
terminal bronchioles smaller than the bronchioles, lead into the repiratory zone structures, terminating in alveoli
respiratory zone respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli; the only site of gas exchange
conducting zone serve as conduits to and from the respiratory zone
alveolar pores connect neighboring air sacs of the alveoli
respiratory membrane (air-blood barrier) gas flows past on one side and blood flows past on the other
alveolar macrophages go in and out of alveoli, picking up bacteria, carbon particles and debris
surfectant lipid molecule produced by cuboidal cells, coats the gas-exposed alveolar surfaces, aids in lung function
respiration pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, respiratory gas transport, internal respiration
pulmonary ventilation breathing; depends of the volume changes occurring in the thoracic cavity
external respiration gas exchanges are made between the blood and the exterior of the body
repiratory gas transport the process of oxygen and carbon dioxide being transported to and from the lungs and tissue cells of the body via the bloodstream
internal respiration gas exchanges between the blood and tissue cells, inside the body
inspiration air flowing into the lungs
expiration air is leaving the lungs
diaphragm respiratory inspiratory muscle
external intercostals inspiratory muscles of the ribcage
intrapulmonary volume the volume within the lungs; when increased, the lungs spread out to fill the larger space
expiration exhalation, largely passive process depending on the natural elasticity of the lungs
forced expiration the depression of the rib cage, forcing air from the lungs
intrapleural pressure always negative, prevents collapse of the lung
atelectasis lung collapse
pneumothorax the presence of air causing the disruption of the fluid bond between the pleura
nonrespiratory air movements result of reflex activity; laughing, crying, a result of emotion
tidal volume (TV) normal, quiet breathing, air moving in and out of the lungs with each breath
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) the amount of air that can be taken in forcibly, over the tidal volume
expiratory reserve volume (ERV) the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a tidal expiration
residual volume allows gas exchange to go on continuously even between breaths, keeps the alveoli open; cannot be expelled
vital capacity (VC) the total amount of exchangeable air; the sum of TV + IRV + ERV
dead space volume the air that never reaches the alveoli
spirometer measures the respiratory capacity
bronchial sounds the sounds that can be picked up with a stethoscope
vesicular breathing sounds occur as air fills the alveoli; soft and resembles a muffled breeze
oxyhemoglobin oxygen attaching to hemoglobin molecules inside the RBC
bicarbonate ion (HCO3) are diffused into plasma; conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate ion takes place inside the RBC
carbonic acid (H2CO3) formed from bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions (H+); splits to form water and carbon dioxide
impaired oxygen transport several causes, can become hypoxia
hypoxia inadequate oxygen intake, causing bluish cast in skin
cyanotic (cyanosis) skin becomes a bluish tint due to inadequate oxygen intake
medulla sets the basic rhythm of breathing, contains the pacemaker or self-exciting inspiratory center
eupnea normal respiratory rate
pons appears to smooth out the basic rhythm of inspiration and expiration set by the medulla
hyperpnea vigorous and deep breathing accompanying exercise
non-neural factors physical, volition (conscious control), emotional, chemical
hyperventilation blows off carbon dioxide and decreases the amount of carbonic acid, returning blood pH to normal range
hypoventitation extremely slow or shallow breathing
apnea cessation of breathing
dyspnea difficult or labored breathing "air hunger"
chonic bronchitis mucosa of the lower respiratory passages becomes severly inflamed and produces excessive amounts of mucous
emphysema alveoli enlarge, chronic inflammation promotes fibrosis of the lungs, airways collapse during expiration and obstruct outflow of air
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
respiratory rate highest in newborn (40-80 per minute), infant (30 per min), 5 years (25 per min), adult (12-18 per min)
asthsma chronically inflamed hypersensitive bronchial passages that respond to many irritants
sleep apnea occurs when the muscles that support the soft tissues in your throat temporarily relax; when these muscles relax, airway is narrowed or closed
Created by: erosok



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