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ANA 113 Lecture 31

Digestive System Lecture 1

Areas included in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract,alimentary canal) includes mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine,large intestine
Accessory digestive organs includes salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas
Lips Obicularis oris muscle, composed of CT and skin (dermis, epidermis), numerous sensory receptors and blood vessels, CN XII (facial nerve)
Cheeks formed by various muscles of facial expression, form the lateral walls of the oral cavity
Hard palate (bone) formed by maxilla and palatine bones, covered with mucous membrane
Soft palate (muscle) muscular arch, covered with mucous membrane
Uvula cone shaped projection of soft palate, keeps food from going into nasal cavity
Intrinsic muscles of the tongue woven skeletal muscle
Extrinsic muscles of the tongue attached to the base of the tongue, orginate from other areas (such as hyoid bone), hypoglossus muscles
Frenulum attaches tongue to floor of mouth
What innervates the tongue? CN IX (glossopharngeal) is senative for the tongue and throat, CN VII and IV is for taste
What is on the dorsal surface of the tongue? papillae (small raised areas), tastebuds, structures sensitive to touch
lingual tonsils lymphoid tissue on posterior of the tongue
How many teeth do you have? 20 deciduous, 32 permenent (replaces deciduous in a predictable sequence)
How are teeth classified? According to shape and structure (incisors, canines, premolars, bicuspids, molars)
Crown exposed portion of the tooth
Neck (tooth) portion of tooth that eneters the gum
Root (tooth) anchors tooth firmly in jaw (maxilla or mandable)
Peridontal membrane (similar to periostium) special type of peritoneum which lines the socket (cavity)
Gingiva (gum) mucous membrane
Alveolus socket (cavity) in bone
Dentin bone-like material in tooth
Enamel mostly CaPO4
Pulp blood vessels and nerves
Root canal canal in which pulp is found
Salivary glands located in and around the mouth and are responsible for the production and secretion of saliva *exocrine glands
What are the types of saliva glands? Buccal, Parotid, Submandibular, Sublingual
Buccal glands small glands located in the mucous membrane of the mouth
Parotid glands located inferior and anterior to ear, drains into the oral cavity near 2nd upper molar
Submandibular glands located just inside the mandible, empities into the floor of the mouth
Sublingual glands located under the mucosa in floor of mouth, empties into the floor of the mouth
Composition of saliva water (99%), enzymes, mucous (lubrication), and salts
What is the purpose of water in the saliva? dissolves food and chemicals so they can be digested and tasted
What are the two enzymes in saliva? lysozyme and amylase
Lysozyme destroys bacteria, cleans teeth
Amylase begins digestion, breaks down starches
What is the purpose of salt in the saliva? maintains proper pH for digestive enzymes
What part of the nervous system controls salivation? parasympathetic
How much salvia is secreted each day? 1 to 2 liters
Mumps a viral infection which leads to inflamation and enlargement of the parotid glands
Pharynx (see respiratory I) lined with stratified squamous epithelium, mucous membrane (lubrication), skeletal muscle
What are the main layers of the digestive tract? Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
Mucosa layer (inner layer)epithelium: stratified squamous (mouth, pharynx, esophagus and anal canal)and simple columnar (stomach, small and large intestine)-also lamina propria
Lamina propria basment membrane of the mucous layer which sits on the submucosa
Submucosa (outer layer) contains many blood vessels, elastic and collaginous fibers (allows GI tract to expand), nerve plexuses (primarily parasympathetic) and lyphpathics (lacteals)
Lacteals lymphatic protion of the submucosa layer, involved in the transport of fats and lipids
Muscularis (musclular layer- like tunica media)smooth muscle: inner cicular layer (mixes food), outer longitudial layer (propels food). innervated by ANS, skeltal muscle at the begining and end
Serosa (Adventita)outer layer composed of fibrous CT
What are the nerve plexsuses of the GI tract? Celiac, Mesenteric, Messner's submucosal and Myentric
Celiac plexus and Mesenteric plexus located around the major arteries, transmits nerve impulses from vagus (CN X)
Messner's submucosal plexus located within the submucosa, controls glands and mucosal folds
Myenteric plexus *most important* located within the muscularis layer, major supply to smooth muscle
How do sympathatic fibers affect the GI tract? generally inhibit gastrointestinal activity
Where do the sympathetic fibers come from? thoraic region of the spinal cord and sympathetic chain ganglia
How do parasympathatic fibers affect the GI tract? promote gastrointestinal activity
Where do parasympathatic fibers come from? carried by the vagus nerve or coming from the sacral region of the spinal cord
Blood supply for the GI tract Celiac trunk, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric
What does the celiac trunk supply? gastric, hepatic, and spleenic areas (arteries)
Superior mesenteric small intestine
Inferior mesenteric Large intestine, rectum
Esophagus collapsiable, muscular tube which connects the pharynx to the stomach
Where is the esophagus located? posterior to the trachea, begins at larynx, passes through a hiatus in the diaphragm to join the stomach
What type of epithelium is present in the esophagus? stratified squamous
How is the muscular layer of the esophagus divided? upper 1/3= skeltal muscle, middle= combination of smooth and skeltal muscle, lower 1/3= smooth muscle only
Gastroesophageal sphincter smooth muscle, helps prevent stomach contents from being regurgitated int esophagus
GERD Gastro esophageal reflux disease
Hiatal Hernia when the stomach protrudes through the esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm and into the thoracic cavity
Created by: Kachmiel



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