Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

ANA 113 Lecture 27

Respiratory Lecture 2

QuestionAnswer
Medial surface of the lungs (hilum) region where pulmonary vessels and bronchi pass into lung tissue
Costal surface of lungs in contact with ribs, anterior surface
Apex of lungs superior most, extends above the clavicle
Base of lungs inferior most, fits over convex dome of the diaphragm
Pleura double walled sac which encloses and protects the lungs. composed of a serous membrane which secretes pleural fluid
Viseral pleura adheres directly to the surface of the lung
Parietal pleura lines the walls of the thoracic cavity
Pleural cavity the space between the visceral and parietal pleural membranes which contains pleural fluid for lubrication
Pleurisy infection of the pleural membranes
Midclavicular line: where does the lung end? where does the pleura end? where can you remove pleural fluid from? Lung: rib 6, Pleura: rib 8, remove from: rib 7
Midaxillary line: where does the lung end? where does the pleura end? where can you remove pleural fluid from? Lung: rib 8, Pleura: rib 10, remove from: rib 9
Midscapular line: where does the lung end? where does the pleura end? where can you remove pleural fluid from? Lung: rib 10, Pleura: rib 12, remove from: rib 11
What happens if you aim too low while trying to remove pleural fluid on the left side? you'll hit the spleen
How many lobes are on the right side? 3: superior, middle, inferior
How many lobes are on the left side? 2: superior, inferior
Bronchoplumonary segments smaller divisions of the lobes of lung tissue
What supplies each bronchopulmonary segment? tertiary bronchus, pulmonary arteriole and pulmonary venule
How many alveoli/lung are there? approximately 350 million per lung
Structure of alveoli -small grape-like clusters of sacs where gas exchange occurs -composed of type I and type II cells
Type I cells located in alveoli-simple squamous cells
Type II cells located in alveoli- cells that produce a "detergent-like" substance called surfactant which prevents alveolar walls from sticking together and collapsing
Surfactant prevents alveolar walls from sticking together and collapsing
Main muscle of respiration diaphragm
What innervates th diaphragm? phrenic nerve (originates from C3, C4, C5)
Diaphragm -thin dome shaped sheet of skeletal muscle -seperates thoracic and abdominal cavities
Hiatus openings in the diaphragm that allow for the passage of the aorta, the inferior vena cava and the esophagus from the thoracic cavity to the abdominal cavity
Where is the respiratory center located? hypothalmus
What controls contraction of the diaphragm and intercoastal muscles? CNS and PNS motor neurons
Where are the motor neurons? upper motor neuron from CNS (frontal lobe) and lower motor neuron in ventral gray horn of spinal cord
What do baroreceptors respond to? pressure changes, stretch, temperature changes
How does the hypothalmus affect the rate of breathing besides being the respiratory center? other things controlled by hypothalmus may also affect rate of breathing; emotions, stress, pain, etc.
Peripheral chemoreceptors -coracoid body (near bifurcation) and aortic bodies (near aortic arch) respond to changes in pH (due to CO2) levels -CN IX and X transmit messae to brain stem
How does CO2 affect the rate of respiration? CO2 levels increase, pH decreases, respiration rate increases *rate of respiration is affected by the amount of CO2 in the body, NOT by the amount of oxygen you need
Pneumothorax introduction of air into the plueral cavity due to stabbing, rib fracture, attempt to insert a tube into subclavian vein, etc. causes the lung to collapse
Inspiraion (movement of air into lungs) acheived through contraction of the diaphragm (flatten/lower dome) and contraction of the intercoastal muscles (ribs move up and out-elevtion of ribs)
Expiration (movement of air out of lungs) acheived through passive recoil (muscles relax) and forced expiration (contraction of specific muscles)
Passive elastic recoil -expiration by relaxation of muscles -relaxation of skeletal muscle of the diaphragm (it rises) -relaxation of intercoastals (ribs move down and inward) -result: decreases vertical dimension of the thoracic cavity, increases pressure, air moves out
Forced expiration -contraction of specific muscles -abdominal muscles contract and push organs upward, further decreases size of the thoracic cavity to force more air out.
Created by: Kachmiel