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Chapter 11- Anatomy

Fundamentals of the nervous system and nervous tissue

What are the three basic functions of the nervous system? Sensory Input, Integration, and Motor Output
Sensory Input Gathered information from the nervous systems millions of sensory receptors that monitor changes occurring both inside and outside the body
Integration A process of the nervous system that interprets sensory input and decides what should be done at each moment
Motor Output a response caused by nervous system, caused by activationg effector organs (muscles and glands)
Central Nervous System (CNS) -consists of the brain and spinal cord that occupies the dorsal cavity -is the integrating and command center of the nervous system -interprets sensory input and dictates motor responses based on reflexes, current conditions, and past experiences
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) -consists mainly of the nerves (budles of axons) that extend from the brain and spinal cord -spinal nerves carry impulses to and from the spinal cord, and cranial nerves carry impulses to and from the brain 2 subdivisions: Sensory and Motor
Sensory, or afferent division PNS subdivison: -consists of nerve fibers (axons) that convey impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors located throughout the body -Somatic (limbs and skin) and Visceral (ventral body cavity) sensory nerve fibers -keeps CNS constantly informed
Motor, or efferent, divison PNS subdivision: - transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs -impulses activate muscles to contract and glands to secrete - 2 parts: Somatic and Autonomic Nervouse Systems
Somatic Nervous System Somatic Motor(Voluntary) -composed of somatic motor nerve fibers that conduct impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Visceral motor(Involuntary) -consists of visceral motor nerve fibers that regulate the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands -2 subdivisions: sympathetic and parasympathetic
ANS subdivisions They work in opposition to eachother, when one stimulates, the other inhibits sympathetic divison: mobilizes body system during activities parasympathetic division: conserves energy and promotes housekeeping functions during rest
Neuroglia neurons that associate closely with much smaller cells 6 types, 4 in the CNS and 2 in the PNS
Astrocytes Neuroglia CNS Function: Make exchanges between capillaries and neurons, control chemical environment around neurons to "mop" up leaked K+ ions and recapturing released neurotransmitters, connected by gap junctions and signal e/o by taking in K+
Microglia Neuroglia CNS monitors nearby neurons health and sense when they are injured and migrate towards them, defensive cells -important bc cells of the immune system are denied access to the CNS
Ependymal Neuroglia CNS -form a permeable barrier between cerebrospinal fluid that fills those cavities and the tissue fluid bathing the cells in CNS -beating of their cilia helps circulate the CSF that cushions the brain and spinal cord
Oligodendrocytes Neuroglia CNS -line up along thicker neuron fibers in CNS -wrap their processes tightly around the fibers, producing insulationg covers called myelin sheaths
satellite cells Neuroglia PNS,surround neuron cell bodies,exchanges between capillaries and neurons, control chemical environment around neurons to "mop" up leaked K+ ions and recapturing released neurotransmitters, connected by gap junctions and signal e/o
Schwann Cells PNS surround and form myelin sheaths, vital to regeneration of damaged peripheral fibers, functions are similar to oligodendrocytes
Multipolar neurons -3 or more processes- one axon and the rest dendrites -most abundant in body, major neuron type in CNS -receptive region (recieves stimulus) Plasma membrane exhibits chemically gated ion channels
Bipolar neurons 2 processes-axon & dendrite- that extend from opp. sides of the cell body 1 is a fused dendrite,other is an axon Rare-found in some special sensory organs Conducting region (generates/transmits AP).
Unipolar neurons one single short process extends from the cell body and divides T-like into proximal and distal branches and forms central and peripheral processes -found in PNS, in dorsal root ganglia of spinal cord- secretory region
nerve fiber bundles of intermediate filaments
neuron structural units of the nervous system that transmit electrical signals
nerve bundle of nerve fibers in the PNS
tract bundle of nerve fibers in CNS
Nucleus collection of cell bodies in the CNS
Ganglion collection of cell bodies in the PNS
Depolarization a reduction in membrane potential: the inside of the membrane becomes less negative than the resting potential
hyperpolarization occurs when the membrain potential increases, becoming more megative than the resting potential
generator potentials resulting graded potential when the receptor of a sensory neuron is excited by some form of energy
Postsynaptic potentials resulting graded potential, when the stimulus is a neurotransmitter released by another neuron. it is called this bc the neurotransmitter is released into a fluid-filled gap called a synapse and influences the neuron post the synapse
Summation Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential can add together, or summate, to influence the activity of postsynaptic neuron
temporal summation 2 excitatory stimuli close in time cause EPSPs that add together
spatial summation 2 simultaneous stimuli at different locations cause EPSPs that add together
neurotransmitter language of the nervous system, each neuron communicates with others to process and send messages to the rest of the body
Created by: TWilcom139



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