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ANA 113 Lecture 26

Respiratory Lecture 1

external anatomy of the nose supported by a framework form posteriorly by the paired nasal bones and anteriorly by plates of cartiage
Anterior boundary of nasal cavity nares-nostrils external openings
Posterior boundary of nasal caviy nasopharynx: upper portion of pharynx (throat)-recall its connection to the middle ear by the auditory tube
Inferior boundary of nasal cavity hard palate- compossed of maxilla and palatine bones , continuous with soft palate
Lateral boundary of nasal cavity skin lining mucous membrane. contains conchae (shelf like projections of underlying bone)
Septum medial boundary of nasal cavity -composed anteriorly of cartilage and posteriorly by bone (volmer and ethmoid)
What makes up the lining of the nasal cavity? Mucosa, goblet cells, blood vessels, olfactory epithelium
What type of epithelium is in the mucosa layer of the nasal cavity? pseudostratified simple columnar
Why are nose bleeds common? well vasclarized, superfical blood vessels
Olfactory epithelium in root, contains specialized nerve cells and fibers (CN I)
Function of nasal cavity -warms air, moistens/humidifies air -plays a role in sound resonance -sense of smell
What are sinuses? paired air spaces located within bones of the facial region. their contents drain into the nasal cavity
Where are the sinuses located? frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid and maxillary bones
Function of sinuses -lessen bone weight -play a role in sound resonance
Structure/location of pharynx -funnel-shaped passageway approximately 5 inches in length -connects nasal and oral cavities to larynx and esophagus -composed of skeletal muscle -lined with mucous membrane composed of stratified squamous epithelim
Nasopharynx -uppermost, posterior to nasal cavity -contains opening for Eustachian tudbe which connectsthe pharynx to the middle ear -contains the pharyngeal tonsils ('adnoids')
How is food prevented from going into the nasopharynx during swallowing? the soft palate and uvula are elevated to close off the nasopharynx
Oropharynx -middle portion -posterior to oral cavity -contains lingual and palatine tonsils
Laryngopharynx -lowermost portion (hyoid bone to larynx -region where food is directed posteriorly to the esophaus and air is directed anteriorly towards the larynx
Location of Larynx connects the laryngopharynx to trachea. located at the C4-C6 vertebral level
Structure of Larynx "voice box" -triangular shaped box which is compose of 9 cartilaginous plates -three main plates: Throid cartilage, cricoid cartilage and epiglottis
Thyroid cartilage "Adam's apple" laryngeal prominance/prominent anterior plate *thyroid gland is NOT located here
Cricoid cartilage signet ring shaped cartilage located inferior to the thyroid cartilage
Epiglottis leaf-shapd plate of cartilage attached inferiorly to the thyroid cartilage. acts like a flap to direct food posteriorly
Vocal cords -located within the larynx -bands of elastic CT -attached to arytenoid cartilage at larynx -vibrate as air passes over them to produce sound
Laryngitis inflammation of the vocal cords, interferes with the contraction of the cords and results in horseness
How do the vocal cords move? intrinsic muscles of the larynx change the length postion and tension of the cords to change the pitch of the sound (loudness is affected by the force of the air and the amont of vibration)
Location of Trachea "windpipe" -anterior to esophagus -connects larynx to bronchi
Structure of Trachea -composed of 16-20 c-shaped rings of hyline cartilage (anterior and lateral sides) -fibrous CT composes posterior wall -rigid yet flexable (keeps airways patent, allows for expansion of esophagus) -lined w/ pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Bronchial Tree consists of a series of "respiratory tubes" that branch into progressively thinner tubes as they extend into the lungs.
Functional unit of the lungs aveoli
Primary Bronchi (right and left) 1st bifurcation -begins at the sternal angle -trachea bifurcates into right and left primary bronchi -composed of rings of cartilage lined with pseudostratified ciliated epthelium and some smooth muscle
Secondary Bronchi (lobar bronchi) one for each lobe of the lung left: 2 right:3 increased amount of smooth muscle in wall
Tertiary Bronchi (segmental bronchi) -one for each bronchopulmonary segment -cartilage gradually decreases as smooth muscle increases -cubodial-like epitheilum
Terminal bronchioles -only smooth muscle and epitheilum (no cartilage!) -open into alveolar ducts
Alveoli lined with simple squamous epithelium, rounded ("grape-like") -regions where air exchange occurs
Created by: Kachmiel



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