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AP Human Geo Unit 6

AP Human Geography Human Urban and development

Bid rent theory is a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate changes as the distance from the Central Business District (CBD) decreases
Blockbusting a procerss by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices out of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood
Central business district the area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered.
Census tract An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published in urbanized areas census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
Centrality the strength of an urban center in its capacity to attrac producers and consumers to its facilities a city's reach into the surrounding region
Centralization is the process by which the activities of an organisation, particularly those regarding planning decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and/or group
Central place theory theory proposed by Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatialy distributed with respects to one another
Christaller Walter central place theory
City Conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as acenter of politics, culture and economics
cityscapes is the urban equivalent of a landscape
colonial city cities arose in societies that fell under the domination of Europe and North America in the early expansion of the capitalist world system
commercialization the transformation of an area of a city into an an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
commuter Zone
concentric zone model a structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-0use rings arranged around a common center
counterurbanization net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
decentralization the social process in which population and industry moves from urban centers to outlying districts
deindustrialization is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial
early cities
Economic base a community's collection of basic industries
edge city a large node of office and retail activites on the edge of an urban area
Emerging cities
Employment structure the percentage of people employed in each of the four major employment sectors
Entrepot a port where merchandise can be imported and then exported without paying import duties; "Bahrain has been an entrepot of trade between Arabia and India since the second millennium BC"
Ethnic neighborhood typically situated in a largerr metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs.
Favela is the generally used term for a shanty town in Brazil.
Female headed household single mothers with kids
Festival landscape a landscape of cultural festivities
Gateway city a settlement which acts as a link between two areas
Gentrification process in which low cost neighborhoods are renovated by middle class to increase property values
high tech corridors areas along or near major transportation arteries that are devoted to the research, development and sale of high technology products. These areas develop because of the networking and synergistic advantages of concentrating high-technology enterprises
Hinterland literally "country behind" surrounding area served by an urban center.
Hydraulic civilization or water monopoly empire, is a social or government structure which maintains power and control through exclusive control over access to water
Indigenous city originating in and naturally living, growing, or occurring in a region or country
In-filling new building on empty parcels of land within a checkerboard pattern of development
informal sector That part of a national economy that involves productive labor not subject to formal systems of control or payment; economic activity or individual enterprise operating without official recognition or measured by official statistics
infrastructure The basic structure of services installations and facilities needed to support industrial agricultural and other economic development included are transport and communications along with water power and other public utilities
Inner city The usually older, central part of a city, especially when characterized by crowded neighborhoods in which low-income, often minority
Invasion and succession the entrance of an armed force into a territory to conquer then sequence: a following of one thing after another in time
Lateral commuting traveling from one suburb to another in going to from home to work
Medieval cities Walled cities include city gates, watch towers and fortified bridges
Megalopolis/conurbation term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are formingin diverse parts of the world. "M" to refer to the Boston to Washington corridor.lowercase "m" as a synoym for conurbation
Metropolitan area In the U.S. a large functionally integrated settlement area comprising one or more whole county units and usually containing several urbanized areas it operates as a coherent economic whole
Multiple nuclei model The postulate that large cities develop by peripheral spread not from one central business district but from several nodes of growth, each of pecialized use. The separately expanding use districts eventually coalesce at their margins.
Multiplier effect direct, indirect and induced consequences of change in an activity 1. industrial agglomerations, the cumulative process by which a given change sets in motion a sequence of further industrial employment and infrastructure growth. 2. urban geography -
Neighborhood a small social area within a city where residents share values and concerns and interact with one another on a daily basis
Office park a cluster of office buildings, usually located along an interstate often forming the nucleus of an edge city.
Peak land value intersection The most accessible and colstly parcel of land in the central business district and therefore in the entire urbanized area
planned communities A residential district that is planned for a certain class of residents
Postindustrial city area where economic development in which service activities become relatively more important than goods production, professional and technical employment supersedes employment in agriculture and manufacturing
postmodern urban landscape attempts to reconnect people to place through its architecture, the preservation of historic buildings, the re-emergence of mixed land uses, and connections among developments
primate city a country's largest city ranking atop the urban hierachy
racial steering refers to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based
rank-size rule In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely propportional to its rank in the hierarchy
redlining a discriminatory real estate practive in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. name from the red lines depicted on cadastral maps
restrictive covenants a statement written into a property deed that restricts the use of the land in some way often used to prohibit certain groups of people from buying propery
sector model an economic model that depicts a city as a series of pie-shaped wedges.
segregation a measure of the degree to which members of a minority group are not uniformly distributed among the total population
settlement form The spatial arrangements of buildings, roads, towns and other features that people construct while inhabiting an area.
shopping mall A shopping center with stores and businesses facing a system of enclosed walkways
site/situation the internal physical attributes of a place, including its absolute location is spatial character and physical setting/the external locational attributes of a place; its relative location or regional position with reference to other nonlocal places.
slum A heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor
social structure the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships
squatter settlement an area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
street pattern(grid, dendritic; access, control)
suburb a susidiary urban area surrounding and connnected to the central city. Many are exclusively residential others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls.
suburbanization movement of upper and middle class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions
symbolic landscape landscapes that express the values, beliefs and meanings of a particular culture.
tenement a run-down apartment house barely meeting minimal standards
threshold/range in central place theory the size of the population required to make provision of goods and services economically feasible.
town a nucleated settlement that contains a central business district but that is small and less functionally complex than a city.
underclass a group in society prevented from participation in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characterisitics.
underemployment A situation in which a worker is employed, but not in the desired capacity
Urban growth rate which is the process by which there is an increase in proportion of a population living in places classified as urban
Urban function
Urban hearth area the region in which first cities were. The five urban hearths were: •Mesoamerica (200 BC) •Nile Valley (3200 BC) •Mesopotamia (3500 BC) •Indus Valley (2200 BC) •Huang Ho (1500 BC)
Urban heat island is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas
Urban hierarchy a rnaking of settlements according to their size and economic functions
Uraban hydrology Study of the effects of urban conditions on rainfall–runoff relationships
Urban morphology the study of the physical form and structure of urban places.
Urbanization A term with several connotations. the proportion of a country's pop. living in urban places. involves the movement of people ot and the clustering of people in towns and cities- also occurs when an expanding city absorbs the rural countryside
Urbanized population the proportion of the country's population living in the cities.
World city dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but centers of strategic control of the world economy
Zone in transition the inner city area around the CBD. It is a zone of mixed land uses, ranging from car parks and derelict buildings to slums, cafes and older houses, often converted to offices or industrial use.
Zoning legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowd to take place in certain areas.
agricultural labor force farmers
calorie consumption Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion
core-periphery model Higher wages and prices are found at the core while the lack of employment in the periphery keeps wages low there. The result may well be a balance of payments crisis at the periphery
cultural convergence is the contact and interaction of one country to another
dependency theory a strucuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. political and economic relations between countries have controlled and limit the extent to which regions can develop
development a structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development.
energy consumption
foreign direct investment investing in United States businesses by foreign citizens (often involves stock ownership of the business)
gender the wide set of characteristics that are seen to distinguish between male and female entities, extending from one's biological sex to, in humans, one's social role
Gross Domestic Product The total value of all goods and services produced within a country during a given year
Gross national product total value of all goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year. It includes all goods and services produced by corporations and individuals.
Humann Development Index an indicator of the level of development for each country, constructed by the UN combing incme literacy educatio and life expectancy
Levels of development per capita levels of income, the structure of the economy, and various social indicators are typically used as measures for determining whether countries are developing or developed.
Measures of development
neocolonialism The entrenchment of the colonial order, such as trade and investment under a new guise.
Physical quality of life index is an attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country
purchasing power parity The theory that, in the long run, identical products and services in different countries
Rostow, W. W. He wrote in defense of free enterprise economics, particularly in developing nations. famous especially for writing the book The Stages of Economic Growth: A non-communist manifesto which became a classic text in several fields of social sciences
"Stages of Growth" model is a theoretical model for the growth of information technology (IT) in a business or similar organization
technology gap The presence in a country of a technology that other countries do not have, so that it can produce and export a good whose cost might otherwise be higher than abroad
technology transfer The sharing of technological information through education and training; The use of a concept or product from one technology to solve a problem in an unrelated one
Third world underdeveloped and developing countries of Asia and Africa and Latin America collectively
World systems theory is a view of the recent five centuries of world history, historical and current applications of some, but by no means all, tenets of Marxism as well as ideas by a range of theorists from Adam Smith to Max Weber, to studying international relations
agglomeration process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close poximity because they share skilled labor pools and technological and finacial amenities
Barriadas Squatter settlements or shantytowns that surround Lima and other urban centers. Since the late 1960s, these settlements have been also known as pueblos jóvenes (young towns
Created by: kimdudek
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