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CH15 Special Senses

Sight, Sound, Olfaction, Taste, Equillibrium

The eye contains ___% of all sensory receptors 70
This structure lines the eyelids (2 words) Palpebral conjunctiva
Lacrimal secretion tears
What do tears drain into? (2 words) Nasolacrimal duct
Tears, after entering the nasolacrimal duct, drain into the... nose
Fluids within the cavity of the eye are collectively refered to as... humors
Fibrous layer of eyes consists of the ___ and cornea sclera
Transparent anterior of fibrous layer of eye cornea
True or false? The cornea bends light entering the eye. True
Vascular layer Uvea
Three regions of uvea - choroid, ciliary body and ____. iris
Supplies blood to all layers of eyeball choroid
Ring of tissue surrounding lens, contains bundles of smooth muscle (2 words) ciliary body
Controls shape of the lens (2 words) ciliary muscles
Colored part of the eye iris
Pupil is dilated in ___ vision and dim light distant
Are dilated pupils small or large in diameter? large
True or false? Your pupils dilate when you like something. True
The sensory layer of the eye Retina
The pigmented layer of the retina ____ light absorbs
True or False? The outer layer of the retina is colorless. False
The neural layer of the retina contains... photoreceptors
The blind spot within the retina of the eye optic disc
The optic disc is the area of the retina that lacks... photoreceptors
Photoreceptors that provide fuzzy, non-color peripheral vision rods
Rods are sensitive to what kind of light? dim
True or False? Rods work best during the day. False
Where in the retina are cones concentrated? (2 words) Fovea centralis
Each cone has one of three pigments -- blue, green or ____. red
The posterior segment of the eye contains ___ humor vitreous
The anterior segment of the eye has how many chambers? Two
Aqueous humor is found in the ___ segment of the eye. anterior
A condition characterized by compression of the retina and optic nerve when aqueous humor drainage is blocked is called... glaucoma
Structure that changes shape to focus light on the retina lens
Clouding of the lens due to aging, smoking, etc. is called... cataracts
True or false? The lens is flexible. True
Bending of light ray when it passes from one transparent medium to another refraction
The lens shape when focusing for distant vision flat
The lens ___ when focusing for close vision bulges
This happens when the lens changes shape to focus on an image accommodation
nearsightedness myopia
focal point within eye when a person has myopia in front of retina (longer than normal eyeball)
focal point within eye when someone has hyperopia behind retina (shorter than normal eyeball)
farsightedness hyperopia
unequal curvatures in different parts of the cornea or lens causes this astigmatism
This happens when you move from darkness into bright light (2 words) light adaptation
Having two eyes provides ___ perception or 3D vision depth
Taste buds are found on the tops of ___.(2 words) fungiform papillae
Receptors that respond to chemicals in aqueous solution chemoreceptors
What is the organ of smell? (2 words) olfactory epithelium
Bundles of axons from olfactory receptor cells form what nerve? (2 words) olfactory nerve
Odorant are dissolved and then bind to ___ ___ in the olfactory membranes receptor proteins
This happens when Na+ and Ca2+ channels open and receptor membrane depolarizes action potential
Receptor organs for sense of taste taste buds
Papillae where taste buds are located -- fungiform, foliate, and ___. circumvallate
taste cells (2 words) gustatory cells
five basic taste sensations sweet, sour, salt, bitter, umami
True or False? A chemical can't be tasted unless it's dissolved in saliva. True
Binding of a food chemical to a taste cell causes the receptor to release a... neurotransmitter
Which nerves are involved in the gustatory pathway to the brain? Cranial nerves VII and IX
Impulses from the taste buds travel to the ___ ___ of the medulla solitary nucleus
What area of the brain provides an appreciation for taste? limbic system
Taste is ___% smell 80
What types of receptors (other than chemoreceptors) are involved in appreciation of taste? (3 words) thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, nociceptors
Three parts of the ear (3 words) external, middle, internal
Parts of ear involved in hearing only (2 words) external, middle
Internal ear functions in hearing and... equilibrium
Anatomy of external ear includes the ___ and ___ helix, lobule
The tympanic membrane is commonly refered to as the... eardrum
The tympanic membrane transfers vibration from sounds to what structures? bones of middle ear
Middle ear bones (3 words) malleus, incus, stapes
Middle ear bones transmit vibrations from the eardrum to the... oval window
The cochlea contains the hearing organ, called the... organ of Corti
What structures in the spiral organ (of Corti) are stimulated by sound vibration? stereocilia (hair cells)
Stereocilia release ___ when they bend due to vibration neurotransmitter
Action potential firing (increases/decreases) in frequency when sound is loud increases
Equilibrium receptors are found in the semicircular canals and ____. vestibule
Static equilibrium is monitored by the ___ receptors vestibular
Semicircular canal receptors monitor ____ equilibrium dynamic
Sensory receptors for dynamic equilibrium are simulated by ____ movements rotary
Sensory receptors for dynamic equilibrium in the semicircular canals(2 words) crista ampullaris
Created by: abgcp



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