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ANA 113 Lecture 30

Endocrine System

special chacteristics of endocrine glands -secretion of hormones -ductless glands -well vascularized -taget tissues -general effect: slow but long lasting (oppisite of CNS and PNS)
How does the endocrine system control hormone secretion? negative feedback
What organ is part of the neural control of the endocrine system? hypothalmus
How does the hypothalmus participate in the endocrine system? secretes substances called releasing factors:stimulates glands to release their specfic hormones
How does the pituitary gland participate? (hypophysis) "master gland"- regulates many body activities through t's action on other endocrine glands
Where is the pituitary gland located? -inferior surface of the brain -attached to hypothalmus -surrounded by circle of willis
what is the general structue of the pituitary gland? two distinct lobes: -adenohypophysis -neurohypophysis
Adenohypophysis anterior lobe of pituitary gland -glandular portion -produces an secretes 6 major hormones
Neurohypophysis posterior portion of pituitary gland -nervous portion (nerves from hypothalmus come down into it) -stores and releases (does not produce!) 2 hormones prouced by hypothalmus
Growth Hormone (GH) -produced by anterior pituitary -increases protien synthesis and mitosis -regulates growth of most cells in body
Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) -produced by the anterior pituitary -stimulates the thyroid -regulates the hormonal activity of the thyroid gland
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) (adrenal gland-cortex-stimulate) -produces by the anterior pituitary -controls secretions of hormones by the adrenal gland
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) -produced by the anterior pituitary -stimulates follicle (ova) development in the ovary and sperm in testes (critcal for development of egg and sperm) -stimulates secretion of sex hormones
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) -produced by the anterior pituitary -plays role in ovulation (peaks when egg leaves ovary) -stimulates secretion of sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone)
Prolactin -produced by the anterior pituitary -increases dramaticaally after giving birth -plays a role in secretion of milk from mamory glands (lactation)
Oxytocin -stored/released by th posterior pituitary -increased during birth and brestfeeding) -stimulates uterine contracts -promotes milk ejection of brest
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) -stored/released by the posterior pituitary -affects permeability of the kidneys to reduce excretion of water (controls amount of water lost) -vassopressin; controls blood pressure, constricts blood vessels -inhibited by alcohol ->leads to dehydation
Where is the thyroid gland located? -anterior of neck -inferior to larynx -surrounds anterior and lateral aspect of trachea
Structure of thyroid gland Gross: two lobes conncted by an isthmus (may also have a pyramidal lobe:superior extension) Microscopic: -cubodial cells -> hormone production -follicles -> store hormones
Thyroxine (T4) -produced in thyroid gland -found in most cells of the body -regulates basal metabolic rate (BMR) of almost all cells
Triiodothyromine (T3) -produced in thyroid gland -found in most cells of the body -regulates basal metabolic rate (BMR) of almost all cells
Calcitonin -produced in thyroid gland -site of action: bone -regulates osteoclast (slows down) activity and therefore the amount of calcium that leaves bones -> lowers blood calcium level
Location of parathyroid gland embedded on the posterior side of the thyroid glands
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) *oppisite of calcitonin -produced by parathyroid -site of action: osteoclast in bone, kidneys, intestine -effect: increases blood calcium levels (osteoclasts break down more bone and intestines absorb more calcium)
Where are the adrenal glands located? paired glands located on the superior pole of each kidney (also called suprarenal)
What are the two parts of the adrenal gland? -medulla (inner) -cortex (outer)
Medulla of adrenal gland -inner portion -activated by stress -prepares body for fight or flight response -works in conjuction with sympathic ANS
Epinephrine (catecholamines) -site of action: many organs and tissues -effect:reinforces and prolongs sympathetic ANS response
cortex of adrenal glands -outer portion -produces cortico-hormones -responds to ACTH (NOT made here -> produced in pituitary)
Aldosterone (a mineral corticoid) -site of action: kidney tubules -effect:regulates Na and K levels (most important is sodium)
Cortisol/Hydrocortisone (a glucocorticoid) -site of action: various tissues -effect: regulates metabolism (glucose), prevent or reduce inflamation (also reduces immune response and stimulates weight gain)
Androgens -estrogen/progesterone -site of action: various tissues (see reproduction lecture) -effects: supplement gonadal hormones, promote development of secondary sex characteristics
location of pancreas -in upper abdomin, postior-inferior to the stomach -both enodcrine and exocrine!
Structure of exocrine part of pancreas -consists of cells and ducts -production and secretion of digestive enzymes into the duodenum of the small intestine
Structure of endocrine part of pancreas Beta cells an Alpha cells
Beta Cells -in endocrine porton of pancreas -produce insulin -sie of action: all body cells -effect: regulates transport of glucose into cells
Alpha Cells -part of endocrine protion of pancreas -produce glucagon -site of action: liver -effect: promotes conversion of glycogen into glucose
location of pineal gland suspended from roof of 3rd ventricle of brain
melatonin -produced by pineal gland -recieves and responds to imput from the visual pathway. highest level at night: may affect sleep/wake cycle (circedin rhythm) -inhibits hypothalmus stimulation of hormones which stimulate glands -delays sexual maturation
Created by: Kachmiel



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