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Brain 1 & 2


Brain is? 3lb in adults; 100 billion neeurons; 10-50 trillion neuroglia; one thousand trillion synapses
Brain Function sensory perception, motor responses, regulation of internal environment, learning-memory-reasoning, emotion-personality
Brain Blood Flow 1 mainly via internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries; depriving oxygen for 4 minutes brain injury; blood returns to heart via internal jugular veins
Brain Blood Flow 2 Neurons synthesize ATP via aerobic cellular respiration; brain cannot store glucose; if glucose is low causes dizziness, confusion
Parts of Brain Brainstem, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, and Cerebrum
Protective covering of brain bone=skull; fluid=cerebrospinal fluid; membranes=meninges
dural venous sinuses drain venous blood from the brain to the internal jugular veins
vascular sinus a thin-walledvein that contains no smooth muscle to alter its diameter
Three extensions of dura mater (brain) Falx cerebri, Tentorium cerebellum, Falx cerebelli
Falx cerebri seperates 2 hemispheres of cerebrum
Tentorium cerebellum seperates cerebrum from cerebellum
Falx cerebelli seperates 2 heispheres of cerebellum
Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) prevents passage of many (potentially) harmful substances from blood into brain; keeps helpful drugs out
BBB is formed by astrocyte processes and tight junctions between endothelial cells in brain capillaries
Astrocytes processes (BBB) selectively allow passage of some substances (glucose) but keep out others (microbes, proteins, antibiotic drugs); gatekeeper b/w capillaries and neurons
Lipid soluble substances (BBB) can diffuse across cell membranes of BBB (oxygen, carbon dioxide, most anesthetics
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) clear, colorless fluid c-ntaining glucose, oxygen, protein, ions; 80-150ml in entire CNS
CSF Functions mechanical protection, chemical protection, and circulation
mechanical protection (CSF) "Brain floats" in CSF, cushioning impact with skull
chemical protection (CSF) maintains optimal ion concentration for transmission of nerve impulses
circulation (CSF) moves nutrients and wastes between CNS and blood; in cavities in brain-spinal cord & around brain-spinal cord in subarachnoid space
1st and 2nd ventricles (lateral ventricles) are located in each hemisphere of the cerebrum
septum pellucidum a thin membrane that seperates the lateral ventricles
3rd ventricle located in the diencephalon b/w the right and left halves of thalamus
interventricular foramina connects the lateral ventricles to the 3rd ventricle
4th ventricle located b/w the brainstem and the cerebellum
cerebral aqueduct connects the 3rd ventricle to 4th ventricle; conducts CSF to the central canal of the spinal cord
choroid plexuses (CSF Formation) forms CSF in all 4 walls of all 4 ventricles of brain; networks of cappillaries covered by (cilated) ependymal cells
ependymal cells form (CSF Formation) CSF from blood plasma by filtiration & secretion; ciliated cells help circulate CSF
ependymal cells joined by tight junctions (CSF Formation) substances entering CSF from capillaries must pass through ependymal cells
CSF enters (CSF Formation) subarachnoid space via openings in the 4th ventricle.
arachnoid villi (CSF Formation) CSF is reabsorbed into venous blood; finger like extensions of arachnoid mater projecting into the venous sinuded of the dura mater
Hydrocephalus (water on brain) blockage of drainage of CSF due to tumor, inflammation, developmental or injury causes elevated CSF pressure and enlargements of ventricles
Brain Stem medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain
Medulla Oblongata 1 Inferior part of brainstem; superior part of spinal cord, contains sensory and motor tracts to all parts of the brain, nuclei control vital functions
cardiac center (medulla oblongata) regulates rate of heartbeat
respiratory center (medulla oblongata) with pons, regulates rate, depth, and rhythm of breathing
vasomotor center (medulla oblongata) regulates constriction and dilation of smooth muscle in blood vessel walls; helps regulate blood pressure
Other (non-vital)reflexes (medulla oblongata) regulates coughing, vomiting, swallowing, sneezing, hiccuping
Medulla Oblongata 2 contains nuclei involved with taste, hearing, and equilibrium, and nuclei associated with 5 pairs of cranial nerves
Pons superior to medulla, anterior to cerebellum; sensory-motor tracts and nuclei; "bridge" that relays info to other parts of brain; nuclei with 4 pairs of cranial nerve
Midbrain 1 extends from pons to diencephalon; contain cerebral aqueduct connecting to 3rd and 4th ventricle, sensory-motor tracts and nuclei; sends info fro cerebral cortex to pons, medulla, & spinal cord
Visual reflexes (midbrain) tracking moving images, moves eyes while turning head, scanning stationary images
Auditroy reflexes (midbrain) moves head to catch sound, "startle reflex" at sudden noise
Skeletal muscle reflexes (midbrain) control some voluntary movements (posture), subconscious movements {damage-loss of dopamine-Parkinson's disease
Midbrain 2 nuclei associated with 2 pairs of cranial nerves
Reticular Formation Netlike arrangement of white matter (axons) and gray matter (cell bodies); extends from upper spinal cord throughtout brainstem, and into diencephalon; contains both sensory and motor neurons
Reticular activating system (RAS) has both sensory and motor fibers that project to cerebral cortex; helps maintain consciousness, active during awakening from sleep, motor function helps maintain muscle tone, a "filter" for important stimuli
reticular formation permits stimuli to reach the thalamus, the thalamus will determine if the info is relayed to the cerebral cortex
Reticular activating system (RAS)injury results in unconsciousness/coma; cerebral activity cannot be aroused even with strong stimulation
Cerebellum inferior to occipital lobes of cerebrum, posterior to brain stem; 2nd largest part of brain; highly folded cortex increases surface area for more neurons in gray matter; divided into 2 lateral hemispheres
Cerebral cortex (step 1 edit motor activity) sends motor impulses to skeletal muscles
Cerebellum (step 2 edit motor activity) receives sensory info from receptors in muscles, tendons, joint, eyes, and ears regarding motion and body position
Cerebellum (step 3 edit motor activity) sends feedback to motor areas of cerebral cortex
Cerebral cortex (step 4 edit motor activity) sends motor impulses to correct errors and smooth out complex activit
1. Cerebellum (movement process) monitors intentions for movement by receiving impulses from motor cortex and basal ganglia
2. Cerebellum (movement process) monitons actual movement by recieving input from proprioceptors in muscles and joints and also from eyes and inner ear
3. Cerebellum (movement process) compares intentions with actual movement
4. Cerebellum (movement process) if any discrepancy b/w intentional and actual movement, the cerebellum sends out corrective feedback to motor neurons in cerebral cortex
Results of Cerebellum (movement process) maintains body in equilbrium; coordinates fine/skilled motor activites such as posture, dancing, stepping off a curb, catching a ball
Cerebellum damage results in ataxia or jerky uncoordinated movements and loss of muscle tone
Diendcephalon extends from brain stem to cerebrum; surrounds 3rd ventricle; consists of Thalamus, Hypothalamus, and Epithalamus
Thalamus paired oval masses of gray matter connected by intermediate mass
Thalamus transmits: info from cerebellum (motor area of cerebral cortex); most sensory impulses from spinal cord (enables crude perception of pain, temp, pressure); finalfilter for incoming stimuli
Hypothalamus inferior of thalamus; major center for homestasis; some parts lack BBB; monitors levels (pH, body temp, hormone levels, nutrients, osmotic pressure)
Hypothalamus functions 1 controls/integrates activities of the ANS which regulates smooth, cardiac muscle and glands; synthesixes regulatory hormones that control the anterior pituitary; contains cell bodies of axons that end in posterior pituitary where they secrete hormones
Hypothalamus functions 2 regulates rage, aggression, pain, pleasure, & arousal; feeding, thrist & satiety centers; body temp; regulates daily patterns of sleep
Hypothalamus consist of a dozen or so nuclei in four major regions, wach regulates an aspect of homestasis
Nuclei clusters of unmyelinated nerve cell bodies in the CNS
Epithalamus superior and posterior to the thalamus; consist of pineal gland and habenular nuclei
pineal gland pea-shaped gland of endocrine system; secretes melatonin (biological clock); visual input detects daylight/darkness; more melatonin is released at night (sleep)
habenular nuclei involved in emotional responses to odors
Created by: sweetlatrece



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