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Muscular System

Entire muscle is surrounded by —at the end forms a tendon epimysium
bundles of muscle fibers fascicles
surrounds fascicles perimysium
muscle cells-made of myofibrils muscle fibers
muscle cell membrane sarcolemma
stores calcium in muscle cell sarcoplasmic reticulum
muscle cell cytoplasm sarcoplasm
repeating units of filaments-contracting unit sarcomere
thick filaments myosin
thin filaments actin
Nerves and skeletal muscle fiber connect here neuromuscular junction
neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contraction acetylcholine
A muscle fiber contracts or doesn’t all or none response
single stimulus contraction relaxation sequence twitch
sustained contraction-stimuli arrive before relaxation complete summation
all muscle fibers controlled by a single neuron motor unit
increased tension produced by increase in the number of motor units recruitment
resting tension-partial sustained contraction muscle tone
contraction that moves the resistance isotonic contraction
contraction that doesn't move the resistance (pushing a wall) isometric contraction
Increased muscle size due to increased numbers of mitochondria, myofibrils, and glycogen reserves hypertrophy
decreased muscle size due to lack of stimulation atrophy
contract .01 seconds or less, large, powerful contractions, fatigue rapidly, “white color” fast fibers
½ size of fast, takes 3 times longer to contract, increased endurance, increased blood flow, red pigment (myoglobin) carries oxygen darker in color slow fibers
fast fibers, brief intensive workouts that stimulate hypertrophy anaerobic endurance
sustained low level workouts, jogging, distance swimming aerobic endurance
Created by: lbrumley