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Appendicular Skel.

Includes Skeletal Tissues

Examples of where cartilage is found Ribs, Larynx, Epiglottis, Trachea, Intervertebral Disks, Pubic Symphasis, Menisci of Knees
Membrane of fibrous connective tissue around the surface of cartilage Perichondrium
Characteristics of cartilage Abundant in embryos, found throughout an adult body, connective tissue, consists primarily of water, resilient
Most abundant cartilage with a frosted appearance found at the end of long bones, ribs, larynx, and the nose Hyaline Cartilage
Cartilage that contains many elastic fibers, is able to tolerate repeated bending, and is found in the ear and epiglottis Elastic Cartilage
Cartilage that resists strong compression and strong tension, intermediate between hyaline and elastic cartilage, is found in the pubic symphasis, intracervical disks, and the menisci of the knees Fibrocartilage
Function of bones Support, movement, protection of underlying organs, mineral storage, blood cell formation
The site of blood cell formation is in the red marrow, this is called _________ Hematopoiesis
Bones longer than wide, a shaft plus ends Long Bones
Bones that are roughly cube shaped Short Bones
Bones that are thin & flattened, usually curved Flat Bones
Bones of various other shapes and do not fit into other categories Irregular Bones
Dense outer layer of bone Compact Bone
Internal network of bone Spongy (Cancellous, Trabecular)
"Shaft" of the bone Diaphysis
Ends of the bone Epiphysis
Hollow cavity in the shaft of the bone filled with yellow marrow Medullary Cavity
The fibrous membrane that covers the external surfaces of bones except at their articular surfaces Periosteum
Fibers extending from the periosteum into the lamellae of the bone Sharpey's Fibers (Perforating Fibers)
Membrane lining the medullary cavity of bone and other inner bone surfaces Endosteum
Microscopic bone unit of compact bone, consisting of Haversian Canals and the surrounding lamellae; long cylindrical structures oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone and to the main compressive forces Osteon (Haversian System)
Osteons can be viewed as ________, and resemble __________ Mini weight bearing pillars The rings of a tree trunk
Layer of bone matrix in which the collagen fibers and mineral crystals align and run in a single direction Lamella
What is the alternating pattern of the lamellae optimal for? Withstanding torsion, twisting stresses
Runs through the core of each osteon, lined by endosteum, contains blood vessels Central Canal (Haversian Canal)
Lie at right angles to the central canals and connect the blood & nerve supply of the periosteum to the central canals and marrow cavity Perforating Canals (Volkmann's Canals)
Mature bone cells that are spider shaped Osteocytes
Osteocyte bodies occupy small cavities in the solid matrix called.... Lacunae
Osteocyte spider legs occupy thin tubes called..... Canaliculi
Chemical composition of bone is made up of _____ organic components & ______ inorganic components 35% 65%
35% organic components are composed of.... Cells, fibers, organic substances, collagen
Contributes to the flexibility & tensile strength of bones Collagen
65% inorganic components are composed of..... Primarily calcium phosphate
The appendicular skeleton has ______ classified bones 126
The upper extremities and the pectoral girdle have _____ classified bones 64
The lower extremities and the pelvic girdle have _____ classified bones 62
The pectoral girdle attaches the ______ _______ to the trunk, and the pelvic girdle attaches the ______ _____ to the trunk Upper extremities, lower extremities
The pectoral girdle consists of the..... Clavicles & the scapulae
The medial end of each clavicle articulates with the..... Manubrium and first rib
The medial end of the clavicles are also called..... The sternal end of the clavicle(s)
Laterally each end of the clavicles join the..... Scapulae
The lateral end of each clavicle is also called.... The acromial end
What type of joint is the shoulder joint? Ball and socket
What do the clavicles help do? Provide attachment for muscles, hold the scapulae and the arms laterally, transmit compression forces from the upper limb to the axial skeleton
Where do the scapulae lie? Where are they located? On the dorsal surface of the rib cage and are located between ribs 2-7
How many borders do the scapulae have? How many angles? 3 Borders: Superior, Medial, Lateral 3 Angles: Lateral, Superior, Inferior
Articulates with the head of the humerus and forms the shoulder joint The Glenoid Cavity
A process that articulates with the acromial end of the clavicles Acromion
How many bones form each upper limb? 30
How many classified bones are in the hand? 27 (54 between both hands)
The only bone of the arm Humerus
Longest and strongest bone of the upper limb, articulates with the scapula at the glenoid cavity, articulates with the radius & ulna at the elbow Humerus
Located at the proximal end of the humerus and fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula Head
Located at the distal end of the humerus Condyles
Name the 2 condyles at the distal end of the humerus Trochlea & Capitulum
Medial condyle on the humerus that articulates with the ulna Trochlea
Lateral condyle on the humerus that articulates with the radius Capitulum
Located directly superior to the trochlea on the posterior surface of the humerus; receives the olecranon process of the ulna Olecranon Fossa
Located directly superior to the trochlea on the anterior surface of the humerus; receives the coronoid process of the ulna Coronoid Fossa
The forearm is formed by the..... Radius and Ulna
Name the ligament that connects the radius & ulna and connects the tibia & fibula The interosseous membrane
The lateral forearm bone Radius
The medial forearm bone Ulna
The main bone responsible for forming the elbow Ulna
Where are the radioulnar joints located? At the proximal and distal ends of the radius and ulna
Prominent projection on the proximal end of the ulna that fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus when the forearm is fully extended Olecranon Process
Prominent projection on the proximal end of the ulna that fits into the coronoid fossa of the humerus when the forearm is flexed Coronoid Process
Forearm bone that contributes heavily to the wrist Radius
Smooth depression on the lateral side of the proximal end of the ulna where the ulna articulates with the head of the radius Radial Notch
Where the ulna swings on the trochlea of the humerus Trochlear Notch
Located on the distal end of the radius and receives the head of the ulna Ulnar Notch
How many classified carpals make up the wrist? 16
How many classified metacarpals make up the palm? 10
How many classified phalanges make up the fingers? 28
Bones that form the true wrist at the proximal region of the hand, classified as short bones Carpals
Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetral, Pisiform; form the.... Proximal row of carpal bones from lateral to medial
Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate; form the.... Distal row of carpal bones from lateral to medial
How are the metacarpals numbered? 1-5 beginning with the pollex
How are the phalanges numbered? 1-5 beginning with the pollex
Each finger has how many phalanges? 3: Proximal, Middle, Distal (except the thumb)
What does the pelvic girdle help do? Attaches the lower limbs to the spine, supports visceral organs
Where do the hip bones unite anteriorly? Pubic Symphasis
The hip bones articulate posteriorly with the _____ at the ______ _______ Sacrum; Sacroiliac Joint
Name the 3 regions of the coxal bones Ilium, Ischium, Pubis
Deep hemispherical socket on the lateral pelvic surface that holds the head of the femur Acetabulum
Forms the superior region of the coxal bone, large & flaring, articulation with the sacrum forms the sacroiliac joint Ilium
Forms the posteroinferior region of the coxal bone, anteriorly joins the pubis Ischium
The strongest part of the hip bone; bear most of our weight when we are sitting Ischial Tuberosities
Forms the anterior region of the coxal bone Pubis
The two pubic regions are joined at this point by fibrocartilage at the midline Pubis Symphasis
A large hole between the pubis and ischeum Obturator Foramen
Carries the entire weight of the erect body, these bones are thicker and stronger than those of the upper limbs The lower limbs
The single bone of the thigh, longest and strongest bone of the body Femur
Articulates with the patella on the distal end of the femur Patellar surface
Articulate with the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia Medial and Lateral Condyles
Projections just above the condyles Epicondyles
Triangular sesmoid bone, short bone, protects the knee anteriorly, embedded in the tendon that secures the quadriceps muscle Patella
The two bones that make up the leg region of the lower limbs Tibia and Fibula
More massive, medial bone of the leg, the medial & lateral condyles are located at the proximal end and articulate with the femur Tibia
The medial bulge of the ankle formed by the tibia Medial Malleolus
Joints formed by the tibia and fibula at both the proximal and distal ends Tibiofibular Joints
Stick-like lateral bone of the leg, helps stabilize the ankle joint Fibula
The lateral bulge of the ankle formed by the fibula Lateral Malleolus
Important functions of the foot Supports the body weight, acts as a lever to propel the body forward when walking, pliable to walk on uneven ground
Make up the posterior half of the foot Tarsals
Each foot contains how many tarsals? 7
Our body weight is primarily borne by the _____ & ______ Talus & Calcaneus
Talus (ankle bone), Calcaneus (heel bone), Cuboid, Navicular, Medial Cuneiform, Intermediate Cuneiform, Lateral Cuneiform 7 Tarsal Bones
How are the metatarsals numbered? 1-5 beginning with the hallux; first metatarsal supports body weight
How many classified bones make up the phalanges of the toes? 28
How many phalanges does each toe have? 3: Proximal, Middle, Distal (except for the big toe, hallux)
Created by: sbarton



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