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ANATOMY CARDSs

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QuestionAnswer
What is Muscle Fiber? muscle cell-an elongated contractile cell that forms the muscles of the body
Motor Unit Has one neuron and all the muscle cells stimulated by that neuron. Skeletal muscles must be stimulated by a nerve to contract
Sarcomere Contractile unit of a muscle fiber. From z disc to z disc
Muscles are attached to at least two points called? Origin and Insertion
What is origin? attachment to a moveable bone
What is insertion? attachment to an immovable bone
What is aponeurosis? a sheet like structure
What is a tendon? a cord like structure
What are the steps in muscle cell contraction and in order? Step 1 ATP binds within myosin head. Actin sites activated by Ca2+ Step 2: Cross bridge forms. ATP splits into ADP and phosphate Step 3: Myosin head pulls actin filament toward center of sarcomere.
What is the basic organization of the skeletal muscle? Connective tissue wrappings of Skeletal Muscle: Endomysium, Peromysium, Fascia, Epimysium.
Where is the endomysium located? around single muscle fiber
Where is the peromysium located? around a fascicle (bundle) of fibers
Where is the fascia located? on the outside of the epimysium
Where is epimysium located? Covers the entire skeletal muscle and blends into a connective tissue attachment
What is the function of the tropomyosin? An actin binding protein that regulates actin mechanics. It is important among other things, for muscle contraction. It associates with actin in muscle fibers and regulate muscle contraction by regulating the binding of myosin
What is the function of troponin? is a complex of three regulatory proteins that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle. In a relaxed muscles the contraction of the muscle is prevented. Calcium is released.
Actin of thin actin filaments actin is the major component of thin filaments, which, together with the motor protein myosin (which forms thick filaments), are arranged into actomyosin myofibrils. These fibrils comprise the mechanism of muscle contraction. shortening of the muscle.
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue? Cardiac, Skeletal, and Smooth
What are the characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue? Have striations, usually has a single nucleus, joined to another muscle cell at an intercalated disc, involuntary, and found only in the heart.
What are the characteristics of smooth muscle tissue? Have NO striations, spindle shaped cells, a single nucleus, involuntary (no conscious control), found mainly in the walls of hollow organs.
What are the characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue? Most are attached by tendons to bones, cells are multinucleate, striated (have visible banding), Voluntary (subject to conscious control), Cells are surrounded and bundled by connective tissue.
What are the 4 basic functions of muscles? Produce movement, maintain posture, stabilize joints, generate heat
What is the definition of a graded response? different degrees of skeletal muscle shortening.
Graded response: Twitch Single, brief contraction Not a normal muscle function
Graded response: Tetanus Summing of contractions. One contraction is immediately followed by another. The muscle does not completely return to a resting state and the effects are added.
Graded response: Unfused (incomplete) Tetanus Some relaxation occurs between contractions and the results are summed.
Graded response: Fused (complete) Tetanus No evidence of relaxation before the following contractions. The result is a sustained muscle contraction.
The arrangement of myofilaments (actin/myosin) on a myofibril produce? the striations of a skeletal muscle cell. Also myofibrils align to give distinct bands.
What is the function of acetylcholine? passes across the neural muscular junction, between nerves and muscle cells stimulating them and causing your muscles to move. Acetylcholine is also involved in memory and learning and is in particularly short supply in people with Alzheimer's disease
What does the blood-brain barrier protect the brain from? The main function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is to protect the brain from changes in the levels in the blood of ions, amino acids, peptides, and other substances.
What is the difference between ganglia and nuclei? In the central nervous system, a collection of neuron cell bodies is called a nucleus. In the peripheral nervous system, a collection of neuron cell bodies is called a ganglion. the difference between a is that both are collections of nerve cell bodies
What cell type and structure produces cerebrospinal fluid, and what produces myelin sheaths in both the CNS and PNS? The major part of the cerebrospinal fluid is produced in the brain by the ependymal cells in the choroid plexus. Choroid plexus=structure forms cerebrospinal fluid. Schwann cells produces myelin sheaths in PNS.
Oligodendrocytes produces what in CNS? myelin sheath.
What is the difference between afferent and efferent? Afferent refers to pathways leading to the cortex (ie, sensory). Efferent are pathways leading away (ie, motor). You are *affected* by a situation, you *effect* change on someone else.
What are neurons? Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon.
What is an axon? long process of a nerve fiber that generally conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell.
What is the cell body? The portion of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus but does not incorporate the dendrites or axon.
The three basic types of neurons are? the motor neuron (efferent), the sensory neuron (afferent), and the inter neuron.
What should you know about dendrites and neurons? If there is no dendrite, it is a unipolar neuron; with one dendrite, it is a bipolar neuron; if there is more than one dendrite, it is a multipolar neuron
what makes up a simple reflex arc? sensory neuron straight to a motor neuron bypassing the brain
What are the divisions of the nervous system? • Telencephalon • Diencephalon • Mesencephalon • Metencephalon • Myelencephalon
What are the organizations of the nervous system? • Peripheral nervous system(PNS)- consists of sensory neurons and motor neurons • Central nervous system(CNS)- spinal cord, brain
What are the major regions of the brain? • Cerebrum • Diencephalon • Cerebellum • Brain Stem
What are neurons? Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon.
What is an axon? long process of a nerve fiber that generally conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell.
What is the cell body? The portion of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus but does not incorporate the dendrites or axon.
The three basic types of neurons are? the motor neuron (efferent), the sensory neuron (afferent), and the inter neuron.
What should you know about dendrites and neurons? If there is no dendrite, it is a unipolar neuron; with one dendrite, it is a bipolar neuron; if there is more than one dendrite, it is a multipolar neuron
what makes up a simple reflex arc? sensory neuron straight to a motor neuron bypassing the brain
What are the divisions of the nervous system? • Telencephalon • Diencephalon • Mesencephalon • Metencephalon • Myelencephalon
What are the organizations of the nervous system? • Peripheral nervous system(PNS)- consists of sensory neurons and motor neurons • Central nervous system(CNS)- spinal cord, brain
What are the major regions of the brain?
What are neurons? Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon.
What is an axon? long process of a nerve fiber that generally conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell.
What is the cell body? The portion of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus but does not incorporate the dendrites or axon.
The three basic types of neurons are? the motor neuron (efferent), the sensory neuron (afferent), and the inter neuron.
What should you know about dendrites and neurons? If there is no dendrite, it is a unipolar neuron; with one dendrite, it is a bipolar neuron; if there is more than one dendrite, it is a multipolar neuron
what makes up a simple reflex arc? sensory neuron straight to a motor neuron bypassing the brain
What are the divisions of the nervous system? • Telencephalon • Diencephalon • Mesencephalon • Metencephalon • Myelencephalon
What are the organizations of the nervous system? • Peripheral nervous system(PNS)- consists of sensory neurons and motor neurons • Central nervous system(CNS)- spinal cord, brain
What are the major regions of the brain?
What are neurons? Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon.
What is an axon? long process of a nerve fiber that generally conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell.
What is the cell body? The portion of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus but does not incorporate the dendrites or axon.
The three basic types of neurons are? the motor neuron (efferent), the sensory neuron (afferent), and the inter neuron.
What should you know about dendrites and neurons? If there is no dendrite, it is a unipolar neuron; with one dendrite, it is a bipolar neuron; if there is more than one dendrite, it is a multipolar neuron
what makes up a simple reflex arc? sensory neuron straight to a motor neuron bypassing the brain
What are the divisions of the nervous system? • Telencephalon • Diencephalon • Mesencephalon • Metencephalon • Myelencephalon
What are the organizations of the nervous system? • Peripheral nervous system(PNS)- consists of sensory neurons and motor neurons • Central nervous system(CNS)- spinal cord, brain
What are the major regions of the brain? Cerebrum Diencephalon Cerebellum Brain Stem
What are neurons? Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon.
What is an axon? long process of a nerve fiber that generally conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell.
What is the cell body? The portion of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus but does not incorporate the dendrites or axon.
The three basic types of neurons are? the motor neuron (efferent), the sensory neuron (afferent), and the inter neuron.
What should you know about dendrites and neurons? If there is no dendrite, it is a unipolar neuron; with one dendrite, it is a bipolar neuron; if there is more than one dendrite, it is a multipolar neuron
what makes up a simple reflex arc? sensory neuron straight to a motor neuron bypassing the brain
What are the divisions of the nervous system? • Telencephalon • Diencephalon • Mesencephalon • Metencephalon • Myelencephalon
What are the organizations of the nervous system? • Peripheral nervous system(PNS)- consists of sensory neurons and motor neurons • Central nervous system(CNS)- spinal cord, brain
What are the major regions of the brain? • Cerebrum • Diencephalon • Cerebellum • Brain Stem
What are the lobes of the brain? Parietal, Occipital Temporal, Frontal
What is the specialized areas of the cerebrum? • Somatic sensory area – receives impulses from the body’s sensory receptors • Primary motor area – sends impulses to skeletal muscles • Broca’s area – involved in our ability to speak
What is the surface of the cerebrum made of? Gyri (ridges) and Sulci (grooves)
Where are the cell bodies are located in the CNS? Cerebral cortex (gray matter)
What is a tract? A bundle of nerve fibers having a common origin, termination, and function
What are the parts of the diencephalon and the function of each part? Sits on top of the brain stem, Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres, • Made of thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus.
Define Thalamus Transfer impulses to the correct part of the cortex for localization and interpretation
Define Hypothalamus Helps regulate body temperature, Controls water balance Regulates metabolism
Define Epithalamus Includes the choroid plexus – forms cerebrospinal fluid
What does the choroid plexus do? Forms cerebrospinal fluid
Created by: shezray