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Spinal Cord_Chp 13

Spinal Cord Connects peripheral nerves and brain ; Superhighway of never tracts conducts sensory nerve impulses to brain and motor nerve impulses from brain to effectors;protected by vertebral column and meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and vertebral ligaments
Meninges Dura mater, Arachnoid mater, pia mater
Vertebra/vertebral canal most superficial; epidural space below
Dura Mater Tube of dense irrecgular connective tissue forming a tough outer coverings; anchored to spinal cord at intervals by "denticulate ligaments"; keeps spinal cord in position during lateral movements
Arachnoid Mater Middle "spider-web" layer, of thin collagen and elastic fibers; separated from dura mater by "Subdural Space"; contains interstitial fluid
Pia Mater Innermost layer; adheres directly to spinal cord & brain; Many blood vessesl that supply oxygen and nutrients to the spinal cord; separated from arachnoid mater by subarachnoid space; contains cerebrospinal fluid (site of spinal tap from L3-L5)
Spaces Epidural, Subdural, Subarachnoid
Epidural space lies b/w the wall of the vertebral canal and the dura mater; contains fat and connective tissue to protect the spinal cord
Spinal Tap Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space b/w L3 and L5
Superior End (cervical spinal cord) Cervical enlargement (C4-T1); nerves serve upper limbs
Superior End (lumbar spinal cord) Lumbar enlargement (T9-T12); nerves serve lower limbs
Inferior End (spinal cord) Conus medullaris, Filum terminale, Cauda equina
Conus medullaris Cone-shaped end of spinal cord inferior to lumbar enlargement
Filum terminale Threadlike extension of pia mater arising from end of conus medullaris; Anchors spinal cord to coccyx, stabilizing cord
Cauda equina "horse's tail"; roots of lowest spinal nerves
Internal Anatomy of spinal cord divided into right and left sides by anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus
Gray matter shaped like letter H; contains neuron cell bodies, neuroglia, and unmyelinated axons and dendrites; intergrates/summates excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
Gray commissure contains central canal which extends length of spina cord; continus with 4th ventricle of brain
White commissure connects white matter in right and left sides of cord
White matter Consists of myelinated and unmyelinated axons of sensory, motor, and inter-neurons that make up nerve tracts; nerve tracts are bundled into columns
Ascending (SENSORY)tracts conduct nerve implulses toward brain
Descending (MOTOR)tracts conduct nerve impulses down toward effectors
Spinothalamic tract begins in the spinal ford and ends in the thalamus of the brain
Corticospinal tract begins in the motor cortex of the brain and carries motor impulses downward to the spinal cord spinal nerves
Spinal Nerve 31 pairs, exits spinal cord via the intervertebral foramina; connected to the spinal cord via a dorsal/posterior and ventral/anterior root
Posterior/dorsal root sensory axons; has a ganglion composed of cell bodies of sensory neurons
Ganglion a cluster of neuron cell bodies outside the spinal cord in the peripheral nervous system
Anterior/ventral root motor axons; no ganglion
Cervical Nerves 8 pairs (C1-C8)
Thoracic Nerves 12 pairs (T1-T12)
Lumbar Nerves 5 pairs (L1-L5)
Sacral Nerves 5 pairs (S1-S5)
Coccygeal Nerve 1 pair
Nerve Plexus divided spinal nerves into branches or ramus; cervical, brachial, lumbar, sarcal, coccygeal
Cervical plexus (C1-C5) supplies skin and muscles of head, neck, superior portion of shoulders and chest, and diaphragm; Phernic nerve; damage to cord above C3 causes respiratory arrest
Phrenic Nerve (C3-C5) innervates diaphragms ; part of cervical plexus
Brachial plexes Supplies shoulder & upper limb ; injuries affect the sensations and movements of the upper limbs
Axillary nerve deltoid & teres major ; part of brachical plexus
Musculocutaneous nerve forearm flexors; part of brachical plexus
Radial nerve shoulder and forearm extensors; part of brachical plexus
Median & ulnar nerve flexors of wrist & hand; part of brachical plexus
Lumbar plexus supplies abdominal wall, external genitals & anterior/medial thigh; injury to femoral nerve causes inability to extend leg & loss of sensation in thigh; injury to obturator nerve causes paralysis of thigh adductors
Sacral plexus supplies buttocks, perineum & part of lower limb; sciatic nerve
Sciatic nerve (L4 to S3) supplies posterior thigh and everything below kness; cosists of common fibular and tibial nerve; part of sacral plexus
Branches of sciatic nerve at the knee nerve splits into the tibial nerve and behind knee commom fibular nerve; injury of common fibular nerve is foot drop and numbness; injury in tibial nerve is the loss of function on anterior leg and foot
Dermatomes specific, predictable area of skin supplied by one spinal nerve; possible to locate damaged regions of spinal cord
Spinal Reflexes arc passes through the spinal cord; responses are integrated in the gray matter of the spinal cord; brain does not direct the response
relex arc simplest of nerve implulse patheays, containing only a few neurons; a receptor, a sensory neuron, and integration center, a motor neuron and an effector
stretch reflex contraction of a skeletal muscle in response to stretching of the muscle, preventing overstrectching and heling maintain muscle tone
stretch reflex process 1.stretching stimulates receptor in muscle; 2. sensory neuron sends message to gray matter spinal cord; 3.sensory neuron activate motor neuron and same time impulses to the antagonistic muscle are inhibited; 4.muscle activated; 5.muscle contracts
Created by: sweetlatrece



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