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Anatomy Vocab Ch 11

Anatomy Vocab Ch 11 Marieb

cardiovascular system transportation; blood transports oxygen, nutrients, cell wastes, hormones, many other substances
mediastinum the middle cavity of the thorax
heart size of a person't fist, hollow, cone-shaped weighing less than a pound
apex of the heart lower left point directed toward the left hip, rests on diaphragm, 5th rib area
base of the heart posterosuperior, where great vessels of the body emerge, points toward right shoulder and lies under second rib
pericardium double walled sac containing the heart
fibrous pericardium loose fitting superficial part of the pericardium; fibrous layer, anchors it to surrounding structures
serous pericardium under the fibrous pericardium, has 2 layers, visceral and parietal
serous pericardium (parietal layer) lines the interior of the fibrous pericardium; attaches to large arteries leaving the heart and continues over the heart
epicardium (visceral layer) part of the heart wall; lubricated by serous fluid, produced by serous pericardial membrane
serous pericardial membrane creates the fluid allowing the heart to beat easily, creating smooth layer
pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium; causes layers to stick to each other, forming adheseions that interefere with heart movement
3 layers of the heart wall epicardium (outer), myocardium (middle), endocardium (inner)
myocardium contains thick bundles of cardiac muscle, ringlike arrangements; reinforced by "skeleton of the heart"
endocardium thin, glistening sheet of endothelium lining the heart chambers; continuous with linings of blood vessels leaving and entering the heart
4 hollow chambers of the heart 2 atria, 2 ventricles
atria receiving chambers of the heart; depleted blood enters these for recycling
ventricles discharging chambers of the heart (pumps)
right ventricle most of the heart's anterior surface
left ventricle forms the apex of the heart; thickest most muscular side of the heart
septum divides the heart longitudinally, AKA interventricular septum or interatrial septum, depending on which chamber it separates
superior or inferior venae cavae receive oxygen poor blood from the veins
pulmonary trunk blood travels thru this from the venae cavae to become the pulmonary ateries
pulmonary arteries carry blood to the lungs where oxygen is picked up and carbon dioxide is unloaded
pulmonary veins oxygen-rich blood drains from the lungs and returns to the left side of the heart
pulmonary circulation the process of blood leaving and returning to the heart
aorta blood returned to the left side of the heart is pumped out of the heart into this; supplies all body tissues; largest artery of the body, the size of a garden hose
systemic circulation second circuit of blood transfer, from the left side of the heart and back to the right; supplies oxygen and nutrient rich blood to body organs
valves of the heart 4 - atrioventricular (AV), bicuspid (mitral), tricuspid, chordae tendineae
atrioventricular prevent backflow into atria when ventricles contract; open during heart relaxation, closed when ventricles are contracting
bicuspid valve has two flaps or cusps of endocardium
trisucpid valve has three flaps or cusps of endocardium
chordae tendineae tendinous chords anchoring flaps to the walls of ventricles in a closed position
semilunar valves closed during heart relaxation and open when ventricles contract; respond to pressure in the heart
incompetent valve forces heart to pump and repump the same blood, valve does not close properly and blood backflows
valvular stenosis valve flaps become stiff, forcing heart to contract more vigorously
endocarditis baterical infection of the endocardium
blood supply to the heart right and left coronary arteries, encircle the heart
coronary sulcus (atrioventricular groove) where the coronary arteries encircle the heart
coronary arteries and major branches anterior interventricular and circumflex arteries on the left; posterior interventricual and marginal arteries on the right
cardiac veins drain the myocardium of blood, emptying into coronary sinus
coronary sinus the posterior of the heart, where the cardiac veins drain to
angina pectoris crushing chest pain caused by deprivation of oxygen in the myocardium
infarction ongoing depletion of oxygen in the myocardium
myocardial infarction heart attack or coronary
intrinsic conduction system (nodal system) built into heart tissue and sets basic rhythm of the heart; found nowhere else in the body
sinoatrial node (SA) crescent-shaped node; most important in the conduction system of the heart; the pacemaker
atrioventricular node (AV) conduction system of the heart
atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) conduction system of the heart
bundle branches right and left, in the interventricular septum; conduction system of the heart
Purkinje fibers spread within the muscles of the ventricle walls, conduct the nerve impulses of the heart
electrocardiography procedure for mapping the electrical activity of the heart
heart block the inability of the heart to receive correct impulses or depolarization waves through the AV node; parts of the heart beat out of unison
ischemia lack of an adequate blood supply to the heart muscle
fibrillation rapid uncoordinated shuddering of the heart
tachycardia abnormal rapid heart rate
bradycardia slower than normal heart rate
systole contraction of the ventricles; written first
diastole relaxation of the ventricles; written second
cardiac cycle events of one complete heartbeat; mid to late diastole, ventricular systole, early diastole
P wave first wave of the ECG, small, signals the depolarization of the artria before contraction
QRS complex large wave (spike), resulting from depolarization of the ventricles, has complicated shape; precedes the contraction of the ventricle
T wave results from currents flowing during reploarization of the ventricles (looks like relaxation on the ECG)
electrocardiogram (ECG) healthy and typical, has 3 recognizable waves; P, QRS and T
heart sounds first is caused by closing of the AV valves, second is when semilunar valves close at the end of systole
murmur abnormal or unusual heart sounds
cardiac output (CO) amount of blood pumped out by each side of the heart in 1 minute; the product of heart rate and stroke volume
heart rate (HR) how many beats per minute
stroke volume (SV) the amount of ventricular contraction measurement; about 2 ounces per heartbeat
neural controls (ANS) determined by the autonomic nervous system, feeling panic or fright
parasympathtic nerves relax the heart, give it time to rest during noncrisis times
increasing heart rate epinephrine and thyroxine
congestive heart failure (CHF) progressive condition reflecting weakening of the heart
pulmonary congestion failure of the left heart causes backup in the right side of the heart, lungs become swollen with blood causing pulmonary edema
vascular system the blood vessels
arteries blood vessels leaving the heart
arterioles small arteries that feed the capillary beds
capillary beds area of the tissue that contains blood heavy capillaries; exchange area between blood and tissue cells; consists of true capillaries and vascular shunt
venules blood from capillary beds are drained into these for transport thru veins back to the vena cavae and into the heart
tunica intima the coat that lines the lumen or interior of vessles; thin layer of endothelium resting on basement membrane
tunica media bulky middle coat; smooth muscle and elastic fibers or elastic laminae
tunica externa outermost, composed of fibrous connective tissue, supports and protects the vessels
arteries walls are much thicker than of veins; closer to heart, must be able to expand as blood is forced into them to travel to the rest of the body
veins far from the heart, thinner walls; have valves that prevent backflow of blood; blood travels back to the heart
valves prevent backflow of fluid, close when pressure is released
microcirculation the flow of blood from an arteriole to a venule
vascular shunt vessel that directly connects the arteriole and venule at opposite ends of capillary bed
true capillaries branch off proximal end of vascular shunt and empty into postcapillary venule
precapillary sphincter surround the root of each true capillary, acts as valve to regulate the flow of blood into the capillary
varicose veins pooling of blood in the feet and legs produce inefficient venous return resulting in high pressure on the veins
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein from a clot forming in vessel with poor circulation
pulmonary embolism clot detachment, result of thrombophlebitis
coronary artery disease filling of fatty calcified deposits in the arteries
intercellular clefts gaps or areas of plasma membrane not joined by tight junctions
fenestrated capillaries found where absorption is a priority; intestines, endocrine glands, kidneys
fenestra oval pore or opening, covered by a delicate membrane, more permeable that other parts of plasma membrane
interstitial fluid (tissue fluid) fluid that fills cell space
hypertension (primary or essential) strains the heart and damages arteries, the silent killer; myocardium enlarges with strain
hypertension (high blood pressure) pathological, a condition of sustained elevated arterial pressure of 140/90 or higher
circulatory shock the blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally; due to blood loss
orthostatic hypotension temporary low blood pressure and dizziness when rising
hypotension blood pressure below 100; low blood pressure
kidneys and blood pressure alters blood volume, allow amount of water leaving the body in the urine; release renin into the bood when pressure is low
angiotensin II vasoconstrictor chemical released by the kidneys to stimulate the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone causing reabsorption of sodium, adjusting blood pressure
pressoreceptors (baroreceptors) send warning signals that result in reflexive vasoconstriction, increasing or decreasing blood pressure
peripheral resistance amount of friction the blood encounters as it flows through the blood vessels
BP blood pressure
CO cardiac output
blood pressure gradient from high to low and low to high as blood travels throughout the body; highest in larger ateries, low or negative at the venae cavae
pressure (pulse) points dorsalis pedis artery; posterior tibial artery; popliteal artery; femoral artery; radial artery; brachial artery; carotid artery; facial artery; temporal artery
pulse expansion and recoil of an artery with the beat of the left ventricle
hepatic portal circulation inferior/superior mesenteric vein; splenic vein; L gastric vein; hepatic portal vein
fetal circulation (umbilical cord) umbilical vein and umbilical arteries
fetal circulation ductus venosus; formen ovale; ductus arteriosus; ligamentum arteriosum
brain circulation internal carotid arteries; anterior and middle cerebral arteries; vertebral arteries; basilar artery; posterior cerebral arteries; cerebral arterial circle; circle of Willis
veins draining into inferior vena cava anterior and posterior tibial veins; fibular vein; popliteal vein; femoral vein; great saphenous veins; dorsal venous arch; common iliac vein; both gonadal veins; renal vein; hepatic portal vein; hepatic veins
veins draining into superior vena cava radial ulnar veins; brachial vein; axillary vein; cephalic vein; basilic vein; median cubital vein; subclavian vein; external/internal jugular vein; vertebral vein; brachiocephalic vein
arterial branches of abdominal aorta celiac trunk; L gastric; spenic; common hepatic; superior mesenteric; renal; gonadal; inferior mesenteric; common iliac; internal iliac ; external iliac; femoral; deep artery of the thigh; popliteal; anterior/posterior tibial; dorsalis pedis; arcuate
arterial branches of the aortic arch brachiocephalic trunk; R common carotid; R subclavian; L common carotid; L internal carotid; L external carotid; L subclavian; vertebral; axilary; brachial; radia and ulnar
arterial branches of the thoracic aorta intercostal arteries (ten pairs); bronchial arteries; esophageal arteries; phrenic arteries
Created by: erosok



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