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UB ANA 113 Lec 30

Endocrine System

What glands are included in the endocrine system? pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, gonads(ovaries and testes). Pineal gland, thymus, secretory cells of the GI tract
Main function of the endocrine system regulation and integration of body processes. Maintains a controlled environment
3 General characteristics of endocrine glands 1) secretion of hormones, 2)ductless glands, 3)well vascularized
hormones chemical messengers ("regulators") which affect the activity of other cells
ductless glands secrete products directly into blood stream
What is the most efficient way to distribute things systemically that is utilized by the endocrine system? secrete directly into the blood stream
Describe the blood supply of endocrine glands well vascularized
A certain endocrine gland affects it's ... target tissue
What is the general effect of endocrine glands? slow but long lasting. Opposite of CNS and PNS
negative feedback mechanism and example low levels increase production, when levels are high again it forces secretion to stop. Ex. Insulin
What neural structure is involved in endocrine control? hypothalamus.
Releasing factors Secreted by the hypothalamus. Stimulate glands to secrete their specific hormones.
Example of a releasing factor GHRF. Growth hormone releasing factor. Causes pituitary to release growth hormones. Secreted by the hypothalamus
What is another name for the pituitary? hypophysis
What is the "master gland" and why pituitary gland. It regulates many body activities through its action on other endocrine glands
Location of the Pituitary Inferior surface of brain. Beneath the hypothalamus. Surrounded by the Circle of Willis.
What are the 2 lobes of the pituitary? adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis
adenohypophysis Anterior pituitary. Glandular portion. Produces and secretes 6 major hormones.
neurohypophysis Posterior lobe. Nervous portion. Stores and releases 2 hormones produced by the hypothalamus. DOES NOT PRODUCE HORMONES.
Does the neurohypophysis produce hormones? NO!
What are the 6 hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary? Growth Hormone (GH), Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin
Growth Horomone (GH) ANTERIOR PITUITARY.Increases protein synthesis and mitosis. Regulates growth of most cells in the body.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ANTERIOR PITUITARY.Regulates the hormonal activity of the thyroid gland.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) ANTERIOR PITUITARY.controls secretion of hormones in the adrenal cortex
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ANTERIOR PITUITARY. Stimulates follicle (ova) development in ovaries and sperm development in testes. Stimulates sex hormone secretion.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) ANTERIOR PITUITARY. Plays a role in ovulation. Stimulates secretion of sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone)
Prolactin ANTERIOR PITUITARY. plays a role in the secretion of milk from the mammary glands. ("Lactation")
Oxytocin POSTERIOR PITUITARY STORES AND SECRETES. Stimulate uterine contractions (delivery). Promotes milk ejection from breasts. (we can induce labor with drug that is similar)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) POSTERIOR PITUITARY STORES AND SECRETES. Affects permeability of the kidney tubules to reduce excretion of water. (#vasopressin, controls blood pressure, constrict blood vessels)
What are the 2 hormones produced by the hypothalamus that are stored and secreted by the posterior pituitary? Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
What are the 3 Hormones produced by the thyroid gland? thyroxine(T4), Triiodothyromine (T3), and calcitonin
Location of the Thyroid Gland Inferior to larynx, surround anterior and lateral aspect of trachea. Anterior neck.
Gross Structure of the Thyroid Gland 2 lobes connected by isthmus. May contain a pyramidal lobe (superior extension)
Microscopic structure of the thyroid gland contains cuboidal cells - hormone production. Follicles store hormones.
Thyroxine (T4) THYROID.Found in most cells. Regulates basal metabolic rate (BMR).Like T3
Triiodothyromine (T3) THYROID.Found in most cells. Regulates basal metabolic rate (BMR). Like T4
Calcitonin THYROID. Site of Action: Bone. EFFECT: regulates osteoclast activity(breakdown of bone). Regulates amt of Ca that leaves Bone. Lowers Calcium blood Levels.
What hormone does the parathyroid gland produce? Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Location of parathyroid gland embedded on posterior side of thyroid. (4)
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) PARATHYROID. Site of Action:osteoclast in bone, kidneys, intestines. Effect: Increase blood calcium levels. Opposite of calcitonin
What does basal metabolic rate effect? Weight gain, body temp, energy
What are the Hormones produced by the adrenal glands? Epipnephrine, Aldosterone, Cortisol, Androgens
Location of adrenal glands "suprarenal" Paired glands located on superior pole of kidneys
Medulla of adrenal glands inner portion. Activated by stress. "Flight or Fight" response.
Cortex of adrenal glands outer portion. produces cortico-hormones. Responds to ACTH stimulation.
epipnephrine ADRENAL.(catecholamines) Reinforces and prolongs sympathetic ANS response. Circulates to various organs and tissues through blood
Aldosterone ADRENAL. "mineralcorticoid". Site of action: Kidney tubules. Regulates Na and K levels
Cortisol ADRENAL "glucocorticoid" (hydrocortisone). Regulates metabolism(glucose). Prevent/reduce inflammation. Acts on various tissues. (Side effect:reduce immune response, weight gain)
Androgens ADRENAL. (estrogen, progesterone). Supplement gonadal hormones. Promote development of secondary sex characteristics. Various sites of action.
Location of pancreas posterior/inferior to stomach. Upper abdomen.
Structure of pancreas exocrine (duct travel) and endocrine(blood stream travel) portions.
general hormones of the exocrine portion of pancreas contains cells and ducts, Digestive enzymes that are released into the duodenum of the small intestine.
Beta cells ENDOCRINE PANCREAS. Act On:All body Cells. Regulates transport of glucose into cells
Alpha cells ENDOCRINE PANCREAS. Act on: Liver. Produces glucagon to break down glycogen into glucose.
Pineal gland location suspended from roof of third ventricle
Melatonin PINEAL GLAND. receives and responds to input from the visual pathway. Is at highest level at night. May effect wake/sleep cycle. Inhibits hypothalamus stimulation of hormones which stimulate the glands. delays sexual maturation.
Created by: HugsAndKisses



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