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BIOL 1141 Exam 3

CNS, PNS, Cardiovascular system

neural plate thickened layer of cells that becomes the neural tube and brain/spinal cord
neural tube formed when the neural plate curls to form a tube. It divides into primary, then secondary brain vesicles that form the adult brain.
ventricles formed by the lumen of the neural tube, hollow cavities inside the brain
central canal remainder of the neural tube, cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord. Continuous with the ventricles of the brain.
anencephaly failure of the anterior end of the neural tube to close, prevents the brain from developing. An infant with anencephaly has only a brain stem.
spina bifida failure of the posterior neural tube to close, resulting in abnormal function of the spinal cord. Varying degrees of severity.
gray matter - cortex cell bodies and unmyelinated axons in the brain, includes the gyri and sulci on the surface of the cerebrum.
gray matter - nuclei cell bodies and unmyelinated axons, nuclei are "islands" of gray matter located deep inside the brain and surrounded by white matter
gray matter - horns cell bodies and unmyelinated axons, H-shaped area in the middle of the spinal cord.
white matter - nerve tracts bundles of myelinated axons that run from spinal cord -> brain (ascending, carrying sensory information) and brain -> to spinal cord (descending, carrying motor instructions)
white matter - spinal tracts/columns bundles of myelinated axons: anterior column, posterior column, lateral column
spinal cord functions 1. Ascending and descending tracts to the brain 2. spinal reflexes
conus medullaris cone-shaped end of the spinal cord found in the lumbar region
lumbar puncture A needle is inserted into the lumbar region to withdraw cerebrospinal fluid for culture. Usually done at L4 or L5 because there is no spinal cord, only nerves. Also called a spinal tap.
filum terminale "end hair" piece of connective tissue that attaches the spinal cord to the coccyx. Part of the pia mater.
anterior median fissure Prominent groove in the front of the spinal cord. Divides the spinal cord into right and left halves.
posterior median sulcus Less prominent groove in the back of the spinal cord. Divides the spinal cord into right and left halves.
anterior horns part of the gray matter of the spinal cord, located in the front of the gray matter area. Contain motor neurons that stimulate effectors.
lateral horns part of the gray matter of the spinal cord, located on the sides. Contain motor neurons that stimulate effectors.
posterior horns part of the gray matter of the spinal cord, located in the back of the gray matter area. Receive information from sensory neurons.
gray commissure connects the right and left parts of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
central canal hole in the middle of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
anterior tracts/columns white matter of the spinal cord, located toward the front.
lateral tracts/columns white matter of the spinal cord, located on the sides.
posterior tracts/columns white matter of the spinal cord, located toward the back.
dorsal root brings sensory information from the body to the spinal cord
ventral root sends motor information from the spinal cord to the body
dorsal root ganglion bulge in the dorsal root that contains sensory nerve cell bodies.
decussation crossing over of nerve tracts from one side of the body to the opposite side of the brain. Different patterns for different types of receptors - some cross early, some cross almost at the brain.
brain characteristics complex organ, contains 100 billion multipolar neurons, weighs about 3 lbs (2% of body weight), high metabolic rate (uses 20% of cardiac output)
brain functions complex neurological functions, sensory-motor integration, life-sustaining tasks (heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure), maintains homeostasis through autonomic nervous system and endocrine system, innervation of the head
cerebrum functions Sensory functions (vision, hearing, smell, etc.), Association functions (processing of sensory information), Motor functions (control of voluntary motor actions)
cerebral hemispheres Division of the cerebrum into left and right halves
cerebrum Wrinkly surface of the brain that accounts for 83% of brain mass.
longitudinal fissure deep groove that divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres
cerebral cortex "Executive Suite" of the nervous system. Controls awareness, voluntary movements, communication, memory, understanding.
convolutions twisted structures/ridges that form the gyri of the cerebrum
gyrus ridge found on the surface of the cerebrum, located between sulci
sulcus shallow groove found on the cerebrum, furrows; prominent ones divide the brain into five major lobes
transverse fissure prominent groove that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
central sulcus groove that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
lateral sulcus groove that separates the parietal lobe from the temporal lobe
4 lobes of the brain frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
corpus callosum major area of white matter (commissural fibers) deep in the brain
association fibers connect neurons in the same hemisphere of the brain
commissural fibers connect neurons in different hemispheres of the brain
projection fibers connect the cerebral cortex to other parts of the brain or spinal cord, allows sensory information to reach the cerebral cortex and motor information to leave
primary motor cortex located in the frontal lobe, controls voluntary skeletal muscle activity; fine motor skills have more primary motor cortex space than gross motor skills
primary somatic sensory cortex Primary sensory cortex that receives information from the general somatic senses (touch, pressure, pain, temperature), located in the parietal lobe. More cortex is devoted to areas of greater sensation (tongue, fingers, etc.)
visual cortex Receives and interprets visual information. Located in the occipital lobe.
prefrontal cortex Memory, spacial tasks, complex organization of the brain, working memory, object recall, problem solving, higher end processing.
lateral ventricles fluid filled cavities lined with ependymal cells located in the cerebral hemispheres.
diencephalon thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland
thalamus sensory information relay center; contains many gray matter nuclei that send information to the cerebral cortex; "gateway" to the cerebral cortex since all signals must be relayed through the nuclei of the thalamus
intermediate mass connects the left and right parts of the thalamus
hypothalamus "below the thalamus"; forms the third ventricle; regulates many of the visceral organs plus things like the ANS, emotional responses, body temp, hunger/thirst, sleep-wake cycles, endocrine system, memory, motivation
pituitary gland technically part of the endocrine system, "the master gland" because hormones control other endocrine structures, dangles from the hypothalamus; secretes 8 different hormones, all but 1 act on other endocrine structures
pituitary stalk connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus; infundibulum
pineal gland/pineal body secretes a hormone-like molecule (melatonin) in response to sleep-wake cycles; regulated by the hypothalamus, located off the posterior part of the thalamus
third ventricle space between the two halves of the hypothalamus
brain stem midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata; connects the brain to the spinal cord
midbrain surrounds the cerebral aqueduct that connects the third and fourth ventricles
copora quadrigemina two pairs of nuclei in the posterior part of the midbrain that control two important visual and auditory reflexes - turning head toward visual cues or loud noises
cerebral aqueduct connects the third and fourth ventricles
pons bridge between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata; controls breathing
medulla oblongata most inferior part of the brain, connects the brain and spinal cord; repsonsible for non-vital reflexes such as coughing, sneezing, swallowing, vomiting; contains 3 vital centers that control critical functions (cardiac, vasomotor, respiratory)
3 vital centers cardiac (controls heart rate, contraction, force of contraction), vasomotor (controls smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles and veins for vasodilation and vasoconstriction), respiratory (breathing rate, how deeply we breathe)
fourth ventricle in the brain stem, connects to the central canal of the spinal cord
cerebellum "little brain"; receives sensory information related to body position and movement from muscles, joints, inner ear, eye; sends that information to muscles to maintain posture and equilibrium; voluntary movement commands from the cerebrum
cerebellar cortex Outer part of the cerebellum, gray matter. Smooths/coordinates body movements.
arbor vitae White matter of the cerebellum. Axons that carry information to and from the cortex. "tree-like" structures
vermis "worm" - connects the two hemispheres of the cerebellum
meninges connective tissue membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord; cover and protect the CNS, enclose and protect blood vessels that supply the CNS, contain cerebrospinal fluid
dura mater outer layer of meninges, dense connective tissue
dural sinus space in between the periosteal and meningeal layers of the dura mater of the brain
epidural space pad of fat just outside the spinal dura mater between the dura mater and the bone
dural sheath dura mater of the spinal cord
arachnoid mater middle layer of the meninges; inferior to dura mater; wispy, weblike threads
arachnoid villi small protrusions of the arachnoid mater that allow cerebrospinal fluid to exit the brain
subarachnoid space space between the dura mater and teh arachnoid mater; contains very little fluid but can fill with fluid in the event of trauma or disease
pia mater innermost layer of the meninges; intimately attached to the organs of the CNS, contains a lot of blood vessels, delicate connective tissue layer.
cerebrospinal fluid watery fluid that fills the hollow cavities in the brain and spinal cord; provides cushion and protection to the brain and spinal cord; carries nutrients to brain/spinal cord, wastes away from brain/spinal cord
choroid plexus formed by the pia mater and ependymal cells, area where cerebrospinal fluid is produced; found in the ventricles and in the subarachnoid space around the brain
meningitis inflammation of the meninges; caused by virus or bacteria
epineurium membrane that surrounds groups of fasicles
perineurium membrane that surrounds each fasicle
endoneurium membrane that surrounds each axon
fascicle bundle of axons
sensory nerve carries afferent (sensory) information to the CNS from the body
motor nerve carries efferent (motor) information from the CNS to the effectors
mixed nerve carries both sensory and motor information; examples include spinal nerves
12 pairs of cranial nerves I. olfactory II. optic III. Oculomotor IV. Trochlear V. Trigeminal VI. Abducens VII. Facial VIII. Vestibulocochlear IX. Glossopharyngeal X. Vagus XI. Accessory XII. Hypoglossal
cervical plexus interconnected group of nerves that extend from the cervical portion of the spinal cord, includes the phrenic nerve
brachial plexus interconnected group of nerves that innervate the upper limb
lumbar plexus interconnected group of nerves that innervate the lower limb
sacral plexus interconnected group of nerves that extend from the sacral region and innervate the lower limb, contains sciatic nerve
phrenic nerve stimulates the diaphragm to contract for inhalation
sciatic nerve extends from the buttocks all the way down the leg
somatic nervous system Division of the PNS associated with sensory information and voluntary motor movements. Two divisions: Sensory (Afferent) and Motor (Efferent)
proprioceptors joint and muscle receptors that inform the CNS about the body's position
autonomic nervous system Division of the PNS associated with the visceral organs, all efferent. Two divisions: sympathetic and parasympathetic.
referred pain internal pain that is felt in other parts of the body; example - pain in the arm when experiencing a heart attack
autonomic ganglia groups of neuron cell bodies in the PNS; examples - paravertebral ganglia, terminal or collateral ganglia located near target organs
preganglionic neuron nerve that carries information from the CNS to an autonomic ganglion
postganglionic neuron nerve that carries information from an autonomic ganglion to an effector
sympathetic nervous system division of the Autonomic Nervous System that controls the "fight or flight" response; increases heart rate, respirations, blood pressure; decreases non-essential functions like digestion or reproduction
parasympathetic nervous system Division of the Autonomic Nervous System that is more in control when the body is at rest; "rest and digest" system; decreases heart rate, respiration, blood pressure; increases digestion, reproductive functions
adrenal medulla part of the adrenal gland located above the kidney that is a modified ganglion; contains postganglionic neurons that secrete the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine; controlled by the sympathetic nervous system
somatic vs. autonomic reflex pathway somatic involve skeletal muscle, autonomic involve involuntary visceral muscles somatic involve sensory neuron, association neuron and motor neuron; autonomic reflexes involve sensory neuron, preganglionic neuron (after cord), post ganglionic neuron
base of the heart most superior part of the heart
apex of the heart pointy part of the inferior portion of the heart
location of the heart located in the mediastinum in the pericardial cavity
pericardial sac membrane that surrounds the heart and roots of the great blood vessels; two layers
parietal pericardium membrane that lines the pericardial cavity, outermost layer of the pericardial sac
visceral pericardium innermost layer of the pericardial sac, membrane that is the outer covering of the heart
layers of the heart wall epicardium - visceral pericardium mycardium - cardiac muscle endocardium - inner lining
4 chambers of the heart right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
4 valves of the heart tricuspid valve (rt. atrium -> rt. ventricle), bicuspid valve/mitral valve (l. atrium -> l. ventricle), aortic semilunar valve (l. ventricle -> aorta), pulmonary semilunar valve (r. ventricl -> pulmonary trunk)
interventricular septum division between the left and right atria and the left and right ventricles
auricles "flaps" of tissue that allow the volume of the heart to increase in response to increased blood flow
great vessels aorta, pulmonary trunk - carry blood to and from the heart
superior vena cava brings blood that is low in oxygen to the heart from the upper body
inferior vena cava brings blood that is low in oxygen to the heart from the lower body
pulmonary trunk brings blood from the heart to the pulmonary arteries and then the lungs for oxygenation
pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
aorta brings oxygenated blood from the heart to the various parts of the body
chordae tendineae cordlike tendons that connect the papillary muscles to the tricuspid and bicuspid valves, part of the "skeleton" of the heart
papillary muscles muscles that prevent the tricuspid and bicuspid valves of the heart from prolapsing
skeleton fibrous connective tissue that reinforces the valves, supports them and insulates the atria from the ventricles
coronary arteries and sinus part of the blood supply for the heart muscle; coronary sinus returns deoxygenated blood to the right atrium; coronary arteries divert oxygenated blood from the base of the aorta to the cardiac muscle
flow of blood through the heart superior/inferior vena cava -> right atrium -> tricuspid valve -> right ventricle -> pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary arteries -> lungs -> pulmonary veins -> left atrium -> bicuspid valve -> left ventricle -> aorta -> arteries
pulmonary circuit heart - > pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary arteries -> lungs -> pulmonary veins -> heart
systemic circuit heart -> aorta -> arteries -> organs -> veins -> inferior/superior vena cava -> heart
SA node located in the right atrium near the superior vena cava; group of cells that conducts electrical signals and stimulates the heart to contract
AV node located in the bottom of the right atrium, near the tricuspid valve; group of cells that transmit electrical signals and stimulate the heart to contract
AV bundles branch of teh AV node that goes through the interventricular septum
bundle branches branches of AV bundles. right and left
Purkinje fibers subendocardial branches; smaller branches off right and left bundle branches
cardiac center of medulla oblongata part of the medulla oblongata that controls heart rate
cardiac and vagus nerves cardiac nerve - sympathetic control of the heart, increases heart rate and force of contractions; vagus nerve - parasympathetic control of the heart, decreases heart rate
functions of blood 1. transport nutrients 2. regulate pH 3. regulate solute concentration 4. maintenance of body temperature 5. protection against invasion 6. clotting
characteristics of blood 55% fluid matrix (plasma), 45% formed elements (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets)
plasma fluid matrix of the blood; contains water, proteins (albumin, fibrinogen), some glucose/gasses, and serum.
serum plasma without fibrinogen (clotting protein)
fibrinogen protein essential for blood clotting
hematopoiesis formation of blood cell components
hemocytoblasts blood "stem cell" that gives rise to different types of blood cells
leukemias cancers of the blood cells
erythrocytes red blood cells, most abundant formed element in the blood; no nuclei; primary function is to carry oxygen; small, about 7.5 micrometers
hemoglobin protein that binds oxygen subunits, each subunit has an iron (Fe2+) ion, 98% of oxygen is transported this way
anemia reduced ability to transport oxygen
leukocytes white blood cells; have nuclei; several different types - granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) and agranulocytes (lymphocytes, monocytes)
granulocytes leukocytes that contain secretory vesicles; neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
neutrophils type of leukocyte; phagocytic cells; circulate in the blood; first line of defense against infection, very generalized
eosinophils more specialized infection-fighting leukocytes; involved in allergic reactions and can attack parasitic worms
basophils type of leukocyte, involved in allergic reactions
agranulocytes leukocytes that do not contain secretory vesicles
monocytes type of leukocyte that gives rise to macrophages, circulate/"crawl" through tissues and organs
lymphocytes type of leukocytes that are in circulation in places like lymph nodes or clustered in organs; have specific immune response; produce antibodies
thrombocytes platelets, fragments of cell cytoplasm and membranes, no organelles; main function is to help with clotting, contain fibrinogen
megakaryocytes cells that break into thrombocytes
five types of vessels arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
artery carry blood from the heart; strong; semi-rigid (similar to heavy-duty outdoor hose); thicker walls; circular lumen; elastic
arteriole smaller branches of arteries; can change diameters to help regulate blood pressure
capillary smaller branches of arterioles, where material exchange happens, smallest vessels, largest surface area, most extensive
venule merged capillaries
vein merged venules, return blood to the heart; thinner walls than arteries (similar to lightweight garden hose); irregular shaped lumen; walls are extensible
three layers in walls of larger blood vessels tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa
tunica intima endothelium that contains simple squamous epithelium, innermost layer of blood vessel wall
tunica media middle layer of blood vessel wall, contains smooth muscle and elastic fibers
tunica externa outermost layer of blood vessel wall, collagen fibers and connective tissue
endothelium simple squamous epithelium that comprises the tunica intima
internal elastic membrane border between the tunica intima and tunica media of arteries
vasometer center of the medulla oblongata controls the smooth muscle of the tunica media that can change the diameter of arterioles and cause vasoconstriction or vasodilation to help control blood pressure
vasodilation expansion of walls of blood vessels, lowers blood pressure
vasoconstriction constriction of walls of blood vessels, increases blood pressure
fenestrated capillary capillary that has fairly large pores; medium amount of permeability that allows larger molecules to pass for absorption or excretion; ex - kidneys and small intestine
sinusoidal capillary most permeable type of capillary, ex - liver, bone marrow, spleen; allows many molecules to pass through
precapillary sphincters group of smooth muscle cells that constrict the openings of a capillary bed and allow blood to move through true capillaries only
skeletal and respiratory mechanisms that return blood to the heart skeletal - skeletal muscles can contract to push blood through a vein respiratory - breathing creates pressure gradients
placenta organ that facilitates exchange between the fetus and the mother; has separate fetal and maternal vessels, blood does not mix; also acts as an endocrine gland and secretes progesterone
umbilical arteries 2 branches of the internal iliac artery that carries blood from the fetus to the placenta; exit through the umbilicus
umbilical vein vein that carries blood from the placenta to the fetus; passes through the liver and connects to the inferior vena cava and then on to the heart
CVS differences between fetus, newborn and adult fetus has 2 additional arteries and 1 additional vein that constrict and become ligaments after birth; fetus also has two mechanisms where some blood can bypass the lungs - ductus arteriosis and formen ovale
ductus arteriosus small vessel connecting the pulmonary trunk to the aorta that allows some blood to bypass the lungs and go to other parts of the body; this vessel constricts at birth
foramen ovale small flap-like holes between the right and left atria that allow some blood to bypass the lungs; holes close after infant takes first breath after birth
continuous capillary least permeable type of capillary network; forms part of the blood brain barrier in the CNS; ex - skin, muscle, CNS
blood reservoir slow moving blood in the veins
valves (veins) help blood flow back to the heart against gravity (prevents blood from flowing backwards away from the heart)
Created by: pinklrt98