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prokaryote cells or organisms without a nucleus
eukaryote cells or organisms with a nucleus
human body (somatic) cells 23 paired chromosomes (46 total including X/Y) - diploid
human sex cells 23 unpaired chromosomes - haploid
mitosis somatic cell division
meiosis sex cell division into sperm or egg
four tissue types epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
first three embryonic "layers" ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
ectoderm forms functional epithelium including integument and dorsal cavity plus CNS and special sensory organs
endoderm forms functional epithelium including integument and ventral cavity plus vessels and most other organs
mesoderm forms connective, muscle and nerve tissue plus spleen, kidney, muscles and peripheral nervous system organs
embryonic epithelial tissue ectoderm and endoderm
embryonic connective, muscle and nerve tissue mesoderm
parenchyma functional bulk of an organ; mostly epithelial in origin
organ instrument or tool whereby two or more tissues acting in concert towards a common function
contains "main" and "sporadic" tissues organ
organ system group of organs acting in concert towards a common function
organ system that includes skin (epidermis, dermis, hair and nails) integumentary system - separates body from environment
organ system that includes salivary glands, oropharynx, epiglottis, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, color, rectum digestive system - takes in energy and nutrients
organ system that includes nasopharynx, epiglottis, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveolae respiratory system - exchanges carbon dioxide for oxygen
organ system that includes heart, great vessels, arteries/veins/lymphatic vessels, arterioles/venules/small lymphatic vessels, capillaries, blood, inflammatory/immune cells cardiovascular system - distributes substances throughout the body
organ system that includes central and peripheral nervous systems along with special sensory organs and spinal/autonomic nervous systems nervous system - fast control
organ system that includes regulatory endocrine glands such as hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and sex glands endocrine system - slow, sustained control
organ system that includes bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons skeletal system - supports body against gravity
organ system that includes skeletal and smooth but not necessarily cardiac muscles muscular system - provides movement
organ system that includes kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra excretory system - maintains fluid and electrolye balance
organ system that includes breasts, ovaries/testes, Fallopian tubes/vas deferens, uterus/prostate, vagina/penis reproductive system - reproduces species
3:4:10 embroyonic layers, tissues, organ systems
primary healing or healing by first intent damaged cells repair themselves, and remain functional
secondary healing or healing by second intent resting, committed stem cells produce new functional cells
fibrosis or scarring connective tissue cells replace parenchyma with non-functioning cells
histamine chemical released by most of the body's damaged cells
ligaments organ whose primary tissue is connective and that binds bones to bones
tendons organ whose primary tissue tissue is connective and that binds muscles to bones
axial bones bones like vertebrae located along the central axis
the femur or thigh bone is a _____ bone (shape) long
epiphyses ends of a long bone
diaphysis shaft of a long bone
epiphyseal plate growth plate of a bone
the vertebrae are _____ bones (shape) short
the sternum is a _____ bone (shape) flat
hard outer layer(s) of bone that gives it strength compact cortex
softer interior of bones that produces blood cells spongy medulla or marrow
committed medullary stem cells of bones produce ____, ____ and ____ red blood cells, inflammatory cells and immune cells
principal bones of the head include frontal bones, parietal bones, temporal bones, occipital bones, zygomas, maxillae, and mandible
principal bones of the chest include atlas (C1), axis (C2), cervical vertebrae (C3-6), sternum, xiphoid process, clavicle, thoracic vertebrae, and lumbar vertebrae
principal bones of the pelvis include sacrum, coccyx, ileum, ischium, pubis, acetabulae
principal bones of the arms, forearms and hands include humerus, radius, ulna, carpels, metacarpels and phlanges
principal bones of the thighs, legs and feet include femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals and phlanges
the rotator cuff includes acromioclavicular, coracoacromial, coricoclavicular, coracohumoral, and glenohumoral ligaments along with the tendon of the head of the biceps
the ligaments of the knee include lateral and medial collateral, anterior and posterior cruciate, and transverse ligements
three types of muscle are skeletal (striated voluntary), cardiac (striated involuntary), and smooth (non-striated involuntary
four characteristics of muscle are excitability/irritability, contractility, extensibility, elasticity
muscle fibers are bound into fascicles
the major muscles of the head include the following muscles frontal, temporal, orbital, platysma, sternocleidomastoid and occipital
the major muscles of the anterior chest include the following muscles trapezius, pectoral, rectus abdominal, abdominal oblique, deltoid, serratus anticus
the major muscles of the back include the following muscles splenius, trapezius, latissimus dorsi, gluteus maximus, rhomboides, teres major and minor
the major muscles of the arm include the following muscles biceps, triceps, brachioradialis
the major muscles of the thigh and let include the following muscles: quadriceps, biceps femoris, tensor faciae latae, anterior tibial, gastrocnemius,
Created by: drjanik



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