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Anatomy Vocab Ch 10

Anatomy Vocab Ch 10 Marieb

River of Life blood; heavier than water, about 5 times thicker; always slightly higher in temp than the body
blood carries wastes, nutritents, body heat; the only fluid tissue in the body; both solid and liquid components; connective tissue that contains formed elements
formed elements the living blood cells of the blood, suspended in nonliving fluid plasma matrix
plasma nonliving fluid matrix of the blood; contains dissolved proteins appearing as fibrin strands during blood clotting; makes up 55% of whole blood, 90% water; straw colored; maintains body heat
erythrocytes disc shaped red blood cells, the formed elements that function in oxygen transport; 45% of total volume of blood; aneucleate, contain very few organelles; "bag" of hemoglobin; outnumber WBC 1000 to 1
buffy coat the thin whitish layer at the junction between erythrocytes and plasma; contains leukocytes and platelets, makes up 1% of blood
leukocytes white blood cells; act in various ways to protect the body; contain nuclei and organelles, unlike RBC's; defends the body against damage by bacteria, viruses, parasites, tumor cells
platelets cells fragments that help stop bleeding; form from megakaryocytes, have irregular shape
hematocrit the percentages when a blood sample is taken
blood alkalinity pH between 7.35 and 7.45, slightly alkaline
blood volume is 8% of body weight, in healthy men is about 6 quarts, in women about 5
plasma substances nutrients, salts or electrolytes, respiratory gasses, hormones, plasma proteins, various wastes and products of cell metabolism
plasma proteins most abundant solutes, made by the liver; kept constant by hemostasis
albumin carrier to shuttle molecules thru the circulation, important blood buffer, contributes to osmotic pressure of blood
acidosis blood becomes too acid; corrected by the respiratory system and kidneys
alkalosis blood becomes too alkaline; corrected by the respiratory system and kidneys
hemoglobin mature red blood cells, iron bearing protein; transports bulk of oxygen that is carried in the blood; 250 million in a single red blood cell
anemia decrease in the oxygen carrying ability of the blood
polycythemia excessive or abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes
polycythemia vera bone marrow cancer
secondary polycythemia the body response to high altitudes where the air is thinner and less oxygen is available
diapedesis leaping across, skip in and out of blood vessels so WBC's can get to infection
positive chemotaxis the capability of WBC's to locate areas of tissue damage and infection by chemical "smell"
ameboid motion WBC's form flowing cytoplasmic extensions that help move them along
leukocytosis indicates that a bacterial or viral infection is being created or has been created in the body
leukopenia abnormally low WBC count; common due to certain drugs
leukemia cancer of the bone marrow
granulocytes WBC's having lobed nuclei, include neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
agranulocytes lack visible cytoplasmic granules; lymphocytes and monocytes
neutrophils most numerous of WBC's; multilobed nucleus; phagocytes, partial to bacteria and fungi
eosinophils number increase rapidly during allergies and infections by parasitic worms
basophils contain large histamine containing granules
lymphocytes slight larger tha RBC, live in lymphatic tissues, play a role in immune response, second most numerous leukocyte in the blood
monocytes largest of the WBC; resemble large lymphocytes, when migrating into tissues they change to macrophages with huge appetites, fight chronic infection
"never let monkeys eat bananas" neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
megakaryocyte multinucleate cells from which platelets are broken off and formed
hematopoiesis blood cell formation in red bone marrow or myeloid tissue; flat bones of the skull and pelvis, ribs, sternum and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
myeloid tissue red bone marrow
hemocytoblast stem cell which from all formed elements of the blood, found in red bone marrow
lymphoid stem cell produce lymphocytes
myeloid stem cell produce all classes of formed elements of the blood except lymphocytes
reticulocyte a young red blood cell, enters the blood stream to begin transporting oxygen; becomes the hemocytoblast
erythropoietin the hormone that controls eyrythrocyte production
thrombopoietin accelerates the production of platelets
bone marrow biopsy narrow needle aspirates red marrow from one of the flat bones
colony stimulating factors (CSF's) and interleukins hormones that stimulate the formation of leukocytes and platelets
blood hemostasis stoppage of blood flow; vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation or blood clotting
vascular spasm immediate response to blood vessel injury, vasoconstriction, causes blood vessel spasm and narrowing, decreasing blood flow
platelet plug underlying collagen fibers are exposed, platelets become sticky and cling to the damaged site; platelets release chemical to attrack more platelets to the site
coagulation tissue factor (TF) is released; PF3 phosopholipid interacts with TF, vitamin K and blood protein clotting factors act with calcium ions to form the "clotting cascade"
thrombin is created from prothrombin activator converting prothrombin to this enzyme
fibrin thrombin join fibronigen proteins to create this hairlike molecule, forming the meshwork that traps RBC and form basis of blood clot
serum plasma minus the cloting proteins, help in pulling ruptured edges of blood vessel closer together
thrombus clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vesel
embolus thrombus that has broken away from a vessel wall and floats freely in the bloodstream
thrombocytopenia platelet deficiency
petechiae broken vessels cause this purplish spotting on the surface of the skin
hemophilia hereditary bleeding disorders that result from a lack of any factors needed for clotting
antigen substance the body recognizes as foreign, stimulating the immune system to realease antibodies
antibodies bear antigens different from those on the RBC, recognize and attack foreign substance
agglutination binding of the antibodies, causing foreign RBC to clump (in blood transfusions of incorrect blood) clogging blood flow thru the body
hemolysis rupture of RBC
type O blood absence of A and B antigens; can receive only O blood; is universal donor blood
type AB blood presence of both A and B antigens; can receive A, B, AB and O blood
type A blood only A antigen is present; can receive A and O blood
type B blood only B antigen is present; can receive B and O blood
Rh+ most americans are this type, carry the Rh antigen; receiving the incorrect Rh factor will cause anti-Rh antibodies
hemolytic disease of newborn baby is anemic and becomes hypoxic and cyanotic, brain damage and death due to Rh factor mismatch between mother and baby
fetal hemoglobin (HbF) different from the hemoglobin formed after birth; HbA (hemoglobin A) replaces fetal RBC; the cause of jaundice
physiologic jaundice the condition in newborns caused when fetal hemoglobin is being changed to hemoglobin A
Created by: erosok



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