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Ch 6 vocab+keypoints

ch 6 packet

QuestionAnswer
Deductive reasoning Descartes if someting is true of a class, then that truth applies to all members of that class
Inductive reasoning Bacon reasoning process by which a person starts from particular experiences and proceeds to generalizations
Empiricism Bacon's theory inductive reasoning
Cogito Ergo Sum "I think, therefore I am." -Descartes, fundamental element of Western Philosophy
Leonardo da Vinci artist and scientist(anatomy+biology)
Montaigne French author; modern skepticism; created new genre: the essay
Instauratio Magna Great Renewal; Bacon's book of knowledge
Novum Organum part of Instauratio Magna; contains new method of acquiring knowledge(inductive method)
The Advancement of Learning part of Instauratio Magna; 1623; insisted also that true knowledge is useful knowledge
The New Atlantis 1627; Bacon portrayed a scientific utopia whose inhabitants enjoyed a perfect society through knowledge
Discourse on Method Descartes(1637); ideas(full of doubt); deductive reasoning; "Cartesian dualism"
Vesalius Flemish anatomist who reviewed and modernized the study of anatomy(with the book "The Structure of the Human Body" 1543)
William Harvey "On the Movement of the Heart and Blood" 1628; it explains the blood flow through arteries and veins
Heliocentric Theory the idea that the sun is the center of the universe and all planets revolve around it; Copernicus
Tycho Brahe astrologist who interpreted the starry sky for kings; greatest authority on the actual positions and movements of the heavenly bodies in the generations immediately after Copernicus; didn't fully accept Copernicus' ideas
John Kepler (astronomer)Tycho's assistant and follower; accepted and carried farther the Copernican theory; discovered that the orbits of planets are ellipses
Sir Isaac Newton invented calculus; proved theories of gravity through it; established the idea that the earth is a well-regulated machine that works according to natural laws
Nicholas Copernicus heliocentric theory; published "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs" right before death so he wasn't persecuted
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Newton; all motion can be timed and measured on earth and the rest of the solar system with the same mathematical equations
Galileo built telescope(1609) and discovered that the moon looked rough and confirmed that it was made of actual material, not just light; charged w/heresy and made a public apology
Leeuwenhoek used microscope to become first to see blood corpuscles, spermatozoa, and bacteria
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs Copernicus(1543); heliocentric theory proved through mathematical demonstration
Pierre Bayle greatest spokesman of skepticism
Edmund Halley identified that comets returned and predicted when they would; he observed a comet that returned about every 76 years and is named Halley's comet today
Jean Mabillon French monk/scholar; founder of diplomatics-very controversial; established paleography which deals with the deciphering, reading, dating, and authentication of manuscripts
Essay Concerning the Human Understanding Locke(1690); argued for empiricism and held that the mind is a black tablet at birth and then it shapes itself into what people think or believe
paleography science which deals with the deciphering, reading, dating, and authentication of manuscripts
numismatics study or collection of currency
chronology timeline arrangement
Richard Simon French priest; wrote "Critical History of the Old Testament", Biblical critic
Gregorian Calendar internationally accepted calendar(Pope Gregory XIII)
Letter on Toleration John Locke; relationship between religion and government; advocated established church w/toleration to all but Roman Catholics and atheists
Reasonableness of Christianity Locke; argued that Christianity is a reasonable form of religion; theologians cannot find good by themselves
Archbishop James Usher Church of Ireland Archbishop; published the timeline of the time and date of creation; 4004 B.C. was creation of world
Samuel Pufendorf German philosopher; "Law of Nature and of Nations"-no working together for the common good
Leviathan Hobbes 1651; describes the government as a leviathan(monster mentioned in Bible); ruler must be absolute
Two Treatises of Government Locke 1680; created to protect life, liberty, and property
John Locke English philosopher; father of liberalism; American Constitution ideas creator; people had natural rights;social contract
The 17th century has also been called what? century of genius
What event had repercussions for beyond the realm of pure science? the scientific revolution of the 17th century
Who helped develop the scientific view of the world and emphasized the use of scientific knowledge for practical purposes? Bacon and Descartes
In what field of science did the most astonishing scientific revolution take place? physics and astronomy
although Newton and other scientists continued to believe in the existence of God, the old feeling of dependantcy on divine powers and judgements lost much of its force. yes
What became a model on which many thinkers hoped to refashion human society? the physical universe revealed by science
What has the revolution accomplished from Copernicus to Newton been called? the greatest spiritual adjustment that the early modern centuries had to make
What undermined the Old Europe? The growing involvement with other cultures
What led to a new sense of the relative nature of human institutions? exposure to the variety of human manners and customs
The new views of humanity and of nature began to undermine the old certainties of European life, particularly what? Christianity
Who was the most profoundly disturbing of all the thinkers of the age? Baruch Spinoza
In his writings, who summarized many of the intellectual trends of his lifetime and exerted an immense influence on the future? John Locke
Created by: JamieFunk