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UB ANA 113 Lec 17

Brain II

brain stem core of brain. Connect hemispheres and spinal cord.
Where are the nuclei of cranial nerves located? brain stem
Medulla oblongata L - Foramen magnum. F - Cardiovascular and respiratory centers. Motor and sensory crossover (decussation)
Pons L - superior to medulla. F - Respiratory center
Midbrain L - superior fo pons. F - auditory and visual reflex centers
Diencephalon thalamaus and hypothalamus
Thalamus superior to midbrain. Beneath corpus collosum. Analyze and relay info to cerebral hemisphere (except smell)
hypothalamus Inferior to thalamus but superior to midbrain. Nuclei control sleep/wake cycle, eating(anorexia), ANS connections with pituitary. "flight, fight, feed, fornicate"
Reticular activating system (center) Neurons in middle of brain stem (thalamus to medulla). Maintains conscious state. Damaged = coma
Cerebellum coordinates movement.. "little brain"
basal ganglia clusters of neurons in the brain. Initiates movement - Adult. Controls movement of newborns. Ex area takes a year to mature = walking
Substantia Nigra pigment in these neurons. Gross movement, nothing fine. Damaged = parkinson's diseae
Limbic system Many parts of brain form. Sex drive, memory. Alzheimer's disease.
Tracts/Pathways bundles of nerves conduct info to brain and spinal cord.
Fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus sensory pathway. Origin-Spinal cord, Decussation- Medulla, Destination - (3,1,2)
Corticospinal tract Motor Pathway. Origin (Area 4). Decussation - medulla,Destination - spinal cord.... goes cortex t spinal cord without synapsing
Impaired motor function Damage to either upper motor neuron(cell body in gray matter of cortex, synapse on lower neuron) or lower motor neuron (cell body in brainstem/spinal cordm "synapse" of skeletal muscle fibers)
Poliomyelitis lower-motor neuron leision. Damage to lower motor neurons in ventral gray horn. Usually occurs in lumbar enlargement. Affect lower limb
Lower motor neuron leision symptoms Flaccid paralysis, reflexes absent, muscle atrophy. Muscles supporting vertebral column causes a limp
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Stroke. Upper motor neuron leision. Blockage/rupture causes inadequate blood flow (ischemia)... neurons die
Upper motor neuron leision symptoms spastic paralysis. Reflexes intact. Babinski response, toes flare out, big toe up
Damage to branches of right middle cerebral artery which supplies precentral gyrus affect upper limb
damage to branches of left anterior cerebral artery which supply postcentral gyrus affect lower limb
Created by: HugsAndKisses



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