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Ch11 Musclar tissue5

Muscle metabolism

The supply of ATP depends on the availability of oxygen &organic energy sources such as glucose & fatty acids
Aerobic metabolism(respiration) provides most ATP needed for contraction, uses O2 to generate large amounts of ATP from glucose or fatty acids
In a resting muscle, most ATP is generated by aerobic respiration of fatty acids.
Anaerobic glycolysis(fermentation) allows the cell to produce ATP in the absence of oxygen, but yield is limited & lactic acid, a toxic end product, is a major factor in muscle fatigue.
What is used at peak activity to generate ATP anaerobic glycolysis
Creatine phosphate releases stored energy to convert ADP to ATP
Slow oxidative (SO), slow-twitch, red, or type I fibers Have high concentrations of myoglobin Used in endurance actvities(areobic): Running a marathon, maintaining posture, or antigravity actities
Fast glycolytic (FG), fast-twitch, or whit fibers Used in Short term activites/intsense or powerful activities(anaerobic glycolosis): Hitting a baseball.
Intermediate(fast oxidative)Type IIA fibers Most human muscles are mixtures of these fibers Greater resistance to fatigue compared to fast fibers
Pale muscles(white muscles) are dominated by fast fibers
Dark muscles(red muscles) are dominated by slow fibers and myoglobin
hypertrophy is the increase of the size of muscle cells
Atrophy reduction or loss of muscle mass
Anaerobic endurance Time over which muscular contractions are sustained by glycolysis and ATP/CP reserves
Aerobic endurance Time over which muscle can continue to contract while supported by mitochondrial activities
Myoglobin A protien which has oxygen attached to it, provides extra oxygen for the muscle to maintain a high level of activity for a longer period of time.



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