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Keia A&P1

QuestionAnswer
Psoas Major- Origin Bodies & intervatebral disks of vertebrae T12-L5
Psoas Major- insertion Lesser trochanter and nearby shaft of femur
Psoas Major- action Flexes thigh at hip when trunk is fixed; flexes trunk at hip when thigh is fixed, e.g bowing
Iliacus-orign Iliac crest & fossa, superolateral region of sacrum, anterior sacroiliac & Iliolumbar ligaments
Iliacus- action Flexes thigh at hip when trunk is fixed; flexes trunk at hip when thigh is fixed, e.g bowing
Iliacus- insertion Lesser trochanter of femur
Vastus lateralis- origin Femur at greater trochanter & intertrochanteric line, gluteal tuberosity & linea aspera aspera
Vastus lateralis- insertion Patella, tuberosity, lateral & medial condyles of tibia.
Vastus lateralis- action Extends and stabilizes knee
Vastus medialis- origin Linea aspera, intertrochanteric line
Vastus medialis- insertion Patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Vastus medialis- action Extends knee; inferior fibers stabalize patella
Rectus Femoris- origin anterior inferior iliac spine and superior margin of acetabulum
Rectus femoris- insertion Patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Rectus femoris- action Extends knee and flexes thigh at hip
Gluteus maximus- origin Dorsal ilium, sacrum and coccyx.
Gluteus maximus- insertion Gluteal tuberosity of femur; iliotibial tract
Gluteus medius- origin between anterior and posterior gluteal lines on lateral surface of ilium
Gluteus medius- insertion by short tendon into the lateral aspect of greater trochanter on femur
Gluteus mmedius- action abducts and medially rotates thigh; steadies pelvis by holding or tilts the pelvis of the planted side in abduction so that the swinging foot may clear the ground.
Tensor Fasciae Latae- origin Iliac crest, anterior superior spine, deep surface of fascia lata
Tensor Fasciae Latae- insertion lateral condyle of tibia via iliotibal band
Tensor Fasciae Latae- action Extends knee, laterally rotates tibia, aids in abduction and medial rotation of femur; during standing it steadies the pelvis on femoral head and the femoral condyles on tibia
Satorius- origin on and near anterior superior iliac spine of illium
Satorius- insertion Medial surface of proximal end of tibia
Satorius- action aids in knee(weakly) and hip flexion, as in sitting or climbing; abducts and laterally rotates thigh
Gracilis- origin Body and inferior ramus of pubis; ramus of ischium
Gracilis- insertion Medial surface of tiba just below condyle
Gracilis- action Flexes and medially rotates tibia at knee
Biceps Femoris- origin Long head: Ischial tuberosity. Short head: Linea aspera and distal femur.
Biceps Femoris- insertion common tendon passes downward and laterally inserting into the head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia
Biceps Femoris- action Flexes knee; extends hip; elevates trunk from stooping posture; laterally rotates tibia on femur when knee is flexed; laterally rotates femur when hip is extended; counteracts forward bending at hips.
Semitendinosus- origin ishial tuberosity in common with long head of biceps femoris
Semitendinosus- insertion medial aspect of upper tibial shaft
Semitendinosus- action Extends thigh at hip; flexes knee; with semimembranosus, medially rotates leg.
Semimembranosus- origin ischial tuberosity
Semimembranosus- insertion Medial condyle of tiba; via oblique popliteal ligament to lateral condyle of femur
Semimembranosus- action extends thigh and flexes knee; medially rotates leg.
Peronus longus- origin head and lateral surface of proximal two thirds of fibula
Peronus longus- insertion Medial cuneiform, metatarsal I.
Peronus longus- action Maintains concavity of sole during toe off and tiptoeing; everts and plantar flexes foot.
Tibialis anterior- origin lateral condyle and upper two thirds of tibal shaft; interosseous membrane
Tibialis anterior- insertion by tendon into inferior surface of medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bone
Tibialis anterior- action Prime mover of dorsiflexion; inverts foot; assists in supporting medial longitudinal arch of foot.
Soleus- origin cone shaped origin from superior tibia, fibula, and interosseous membrane
Soleus- insertion Posterior calcaneus via calcaneal tendon.
Soleus- action Plantar flexes foot; steadies leg on leg on ankle during standing.
Gastrocnemius- origin by two heads from medial and lateral condyles of femur
Gastrocnemius- insertion Posterior calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Gastrocnemius- action Plantar flexes foot when knee is extended; since it also crosses knee joint it can flex knee when foot it dorsiflexed
Trapezius- origin Occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, and spines of c7-t5
Trapezius- insertion a continuous insertion along acromion process and spine of scapula and lateral third of clavical.
Trapezius- action Stabilizes, raises, retracts, and rotates scapula; extends and laterally flexes neck.
External intercostals- origin Inferior border of rib of above
External intercostals- insertion Superior border of the rib below
External intercostals- action With first rib fixed by scalene M. it elevates the rib cage aiding in inspiration.
Internal intercostals- origin superior border of the rib below
Internal intercostals- insertion inferior border of the rib above.
Internal intercostals- action With 12th rib fixed by quadratus lumborum and oblique muscle they depress the rib cage aiding in forced expiration.
Recuts abdominis- origin pubic crest and symphysis
Rectus abdominis- insertion xyphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7
Rectus abdominis- action Flexes and rotates lumbar region of vertebral column. fixes and depresses ribs, stabilizes pelvis during walking.
Pectoralis Major- origin Sternal end of clavicle, sternum, cartilage of ribs 1-6 and aponeurosis of external oblique muscle
Pectoralis Major- insertion Fibers converge to insert by short tendon into intertubercular groove of humerus.
Pectoralis Major- action Prime mover of arm flexion; rotates arm medially; adducts arm against resistance; with scapula fixed pulls ribcage upward helping in climbing throwing and forced inspiration.
Diaphragm- origin inferior, internal surface of rib cage and sternum, costal cartilage of last 6 ribs and lumbar vertebrae.
Diaphragm- insertion Central tendon
Diaphragm- action Prime mover of inspiration; flattens on contraction.
Biceps brachii- origin Short head: coracoid process; Long head: tubercle above lip of glenoid cavity;
Biceps Brachii- insertion Radial tuberosity
Biceps Brachii- action Flexes elbow joint and supinates forearm; these actions often happen at the same time. weak shoulder flexor.
Extensor digitorum longus- origin Lateral condyle of tibia, shaft of fibula, interosseous membrane.
Extensor digitorum longus- insertion Middle and distal phalanges 2-5
Extensor digitorum longus- action Extends toes, dorsiflexes foot, tautens plantar aponeurosis
Flexor carpi radialis- origin Medial epicondyle of humerus
Flexor carpi radialis- insertion Base of metacarpals 2-3
Flexor carpi radialis- action Flexes wrist anteriorly; aids in radial flexion of wrist.
Flexor digitorum superficialis- origin Medial epicondyle of humerus; ulnar collateral ligament; coronoid process; superior half of radius.
Flexor digitorum superficialis- insertion middle phalanges 2-5
Flexor digitorum superficialis- action Flexes wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints depending on the action of other muscle.
Flexor carpi ulnaris- origin Medial epicondyle of humerus; medial margin of olecranon; posterior surface of ulna.
Flexor carpi ulnaris- insertion pisiform, hamate, and metacarpal 5.
Flexor carpi ulnaris- action flexes wrist anteriorly; aid in ulnar flexion of wrist
Extensor carpi ulnaris- origin Lateral epicondyle of humerus; posterior surface of ulnar shaft.
Extensor carpi ulnaris- insertion Base of metacarpal 5.
Extensor carpi radialis longus- origin Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
Extensor carpi radialis longus- insertion Base of metacarpal 2
Extensor carpi radialis longus- action extends the wrist; aids in radialis flexion of wrist.
Vastus intermedius- origin Anterior and lateral surfaces of femoral shaft
Vastus intermedius- insertion Patella, tibial tuberosity, lateral and medial condyles of tiba.
Vastus intermedius- action extends knee
Platysma- origin fascia of chest of pectoral and deltoid muscles
Platysma- insertion Lower margin of mandible, skin and muscle at corner of mouth.
Platysma- action Helps depress mandible; pulls lower lip back and down producing a downward sag of the mouth; tenses skin during shaving.
Sternocleidomastoid- origin manubrium of sternum and medial portion of clavical.
Sternocleidomastoid- insertion mastoid process of temporal bone and superior nuchal line of occipital bone
Sternocleidomastoid- action prime mover of active head flexion; contraction of both muscles produce flexion of the neck; action along each muscle rotates head toward should on opposite side and tilts or laterally flexes head to its own side.
Frontalis- origin Galea aponeurotica
Frontalis- insertion skin of eyebrows and root of nose
Frontalis- action with aponeurosis fixed, raises the eyebrows (surprise); wrinkles forehead skin horizontally
Orbicularis oris- origin arises indirectly from the maxilla and mandible; fibers blended with muscles associated with the lips.
Orbicularis oris- insertion encircles mouth; inserts into muscle and skin at angles of mouth.
Orbicularis oris- action closes lips; purses and protrudes lips; kissing and whistling muscle.
Buccinator- origin Molar region of maxilla and mandible
Buccinator- insertion Orbicularis oris
Buccinator- action Draws mouth of corner laterally; compresses cheek; holds food between teeth.
Masseter- origin Zygomatic arch and maxilla
Masseter- insertion angle and ramus of mandible
Masseter- action Prime mover of jaw closure; elevates mandible
Zygomaticus- origin Zygomatic bone
Zygomaticus- insertion skin and muscle at corner of mouth
Zygomaticus- action raises lateral corner of mouth upward.(smiling muscle)
Orbicularis oculi- origin frontal and maxillary bones and ligaments around the orbits.
Orbicularis oculi- insertion Tissue of eyelid
Orbicularis oculi- action Protects the eyes from intense light and injury. produces the actions of blinking, squinting, and draws eyebrows inferiorly.
Temporalis- origin Temporal fossa
Temporalis- insertion coronoid process of mandible via a tendon that passes deep to the zygomatic arch.
Temporalis- action closes jaw; elevates mandible;maintains position of mandible at rest; assists pertyogoids in side to side movement.
Latissimus dorsi- origin indirect attachment via lumbodorsal fascia into spines of t7-L5, lower 3-4th ribs and iliac crest.
Latissimus dorsi- insertion spirals around teres major to insert in floor of intertubercular groove of humerus.
Serratus anterior- origin by a series of muscle slips from ribs 1-8
Serratus anterior- insertion entire anterior surface of vertebral border of scapula
Serratus anterior- action prime mover to protract and hold scapula against chest wall also important in abduction and raising arm in horizontal movements.(boxers muscle)
External oblique- origin ribs 5-12
external abdominal oblique- insertion anterior half of iliac crest, pubic symphysis and superior margin of pubis
external oblique- action individually acting they aid muscle of the back in trunk rotation and lateral flexion when pair contract they aid the rectus abdominis in vertebral column flexion;
Deltoid- origin embraces insertion of trapezius; lateral third of clavical; acromion and spine of scapula
Deltoid- insertion deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Deltoid- action Prime mover of arm abduction; (acting as antagonists of Pectoralis major and Latissimus dorsi;) can act powerfully in flexion and medial rotation of humerus(in synergy with Pectoralis major)
Created by: 1846159146